Calcium Balance: major cation of bones and teeth, transmission of nerve impulses, myocardial & muscular contraction, blood clotting
bones contain 99% Ca+, and remaining is in plasma and body cells in plasma 50% bound to plasma protein and 40% in free or i
Potassium Balance: Support of regulation of intracellular osmolality and cellular growth, as well as acid/base balance (kidneys excrete about 90% of dietary K+ intake, depending on serum potassium, urine
output, and renal function)
ratio of ECF potassium
Magnesium Balance: second most abundant intracellular cation
cardiac and neuromuscular function: normal neurologic function & neurotransmitter release, and muscle contraction and relaxation
Mg is required for the production of ATP, and therefore related
Sodium Balance: ratio of sodium to water & primary determinant of ECF osmolality 90% of serum osmolarity is accounted for by the presence of sodium.
ECF volume and concentration, generation and transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contractility, regulat
Phosphate Balance: PO4- is the primary anion in the ICF and the second most abundant element in the body after calcium.
Most phosphate is the the bones and teeth as calcium phosphate and the remaining phosphate is active in the metabolism of pro, cho, and
A nurse is teaching a group of nursing students about cyclooxygenase inhibitors.
Which statement by a student indicates understanding of the teaching?
Question 1 options:
'Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition causes gastrointestinal side effects.'
When the nurse is reviewing a medication order, it is not clear what
route should be used for administration. What action by the nurse is
Use a current drug reference
Ask the patient what route he
Contact the pharm
Genomics: Molecular Medicine
Genomics in Clinical Education
Most physicians in practice have had not a single hour of education in
genetics and are going to be severely challenged to pick up t
Cell Biology Introduction
Omanand Koul, Ph. D.
Cell Biology Summary
A. Energy Metabolism: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats
1. Inter-relationships in metabolism
2. Nutrition states, energy production and disease
B. Cell Cycle, Cell