Break Even Analysis
In business, to break even means to make no profit or no loss.
If you break even your profit is 0 Dhs.
If you break even:
Total Revenue = Total Costs
TR
=
TC
For Example:
If the TR is Dh 100 000 and the TC is 100 000
TP = TR TC
TP = 10

Future
Value (FV)
Future Value
The future value is what value your money will
have in the future after the interest is added.
Other vocabulary for future value:
Maturity value
Accumulated value
Total amount
Payoff amount
Final balance
FV= P + I
The future

Mean, Median, Mode
There are some useful operations that help
us to analyze a set of numbers.
Three ways to analyze a set of numbers are to find
the:
mean (average)
median (middle number)
mode (most common number or item)
Central Tendency
Mean, median and

Central Tendency by Excel
Calculating Mean Using Excel
Find the mean for the following set of numbers:
16 19
20
19
21
20 19 19 19 18
Fill in all numbers in cells A1:J1 on an Excel
sheet.
Then type the Title: Mean in cell A3
We want to calculate the mean i

Calculating Means with Missing
or Changed Values
Missing Values
The mean age of the five children in a
family is 4.8 years.
The ages of four of the children are 2, 6, 4
and 8. How old is the last child?
a)
Find the total age of the children.
5 X 4.8 = 24

Standard Deviation in Grouped
vs. Ungrouped Data
Ungrouped Example
There are 4 girls in a family. Their ages are 7, 9,
11 and 19.
What is the standard deviation for their ages?
Mean = (7 + 9 + 11 + 19) 4 = 11.5 years
x
7
9
11
19
x-u
7-11.5
9-11.5
11-11.5

Break Even Analysis by the
Algebra Method
Example 1
The variable costs of making a
table are Dh 120. The selling
price of a table is Dh 200.
Fixed costs are Dh 10 000.
The capacity per period is
1000 tables.
What is the break even point:
a) in units?
b) i

Break Even Analysis
In business, to break even means to make no profit or no loss.
If you break even your profit is 0 Dhs.
If you break even:
Total Revenue = Total Costs
TR
=
TC
For Example:
If the TR is Dh 100 000 and the TC is 100 000
TP = TR TC
TP = 10

Measurement of Dispersion
Lets look at the individual data though.
FS2
73
27
73
91
90
99 75
GS2
73
78
73
71
78
80 75
Do the students in the classes seem the same?
No, the students in GS2 are quite similar. There is
a variety of ability among students in F

Creating Break Even Analysis
Charts
In business, to break even means to make no
profit or no loss.
If you break even your profit is 0 Dhs.
If you break even:
Total Revenue = Total Costs
TR
=
TC
For break even analysis we use 2 formulas.
Total Revenue Form

Using the Formula y=mx+b
The formula for a line is y=mx + b
m is the slope.
b is the y intercept.
The Y intercept
The y intercept is the value of y where the
line intercepts the y axis (when x = 0)
What is the Y intercept?
Y
Y intercept
6
= 2
4
y
inter
2

Analysis of Data using Mean,
Median, Mode
Example 1
A math teacher looked at the grades of the ten math students in the class,
which were:
93 98 64 64
95
100
64
85
12 88
He said, I am very disappointed. Most of my students got a D.
a) Which measure of cen

Slope of a Line
What is a Slope?
The slope is how steep the line or the rate it rises.
The definition of the slope in math is the
ratio of the vertical distance to the horizontal
distance
or
Slope = rise (vertical distance)
run (horizontal distance)
Rise

Variance and Standard Deviation
for Grouped Data
Example 1
A store sold 180 calculators. The price of each type of
calculator and the number of each type sold is shown in the
table below. Find the mean calculator price. Then find the
variance and standard

ITBP 202: Discrete Mathematics
Fall 2016/2017
Dr. Mohammad Hayajneh
mhayajneh@uaeu.ac.ae
Tel: 03 7135573
Room #: 3144
Office hours: Sunday 11:00 12:00 & 2:00 -3:00 PM
Wednesday 11:30-12:30
Description:
Main topics include introduction to the ideas of disc