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MICROBIAL NUTRITION AND GROWTH
CHAPTER 6 FROM PAGE 167- 198
1- Metabolism, nutrition and growth requirements.
The common nutrient requirements.
Importance and requirements of major and minor elements.
Nutritional types of microorganisms.
2- Culturing micr
A BRIEF HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY
A- The Early Years of Microorganisms
1- How Can Microbes Be Classified?
Fungi, Protozoa, Algae, Prokaryotes and other organisms of importance to microbiologists
B- The Golden Age of Microbiology
1- Is Spontaneous Generati
(PAGE 56-90) FROM THE TEXTBOOK
PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURES AND
1- PROKARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS
The prokaryotic cell does not contain a true internal membrane-bound nucleus and
organelles, and its interior st
Controlling microbial growth in the environment
This chapter will look at the control of microorganisms by physical and chemical
means. We will discus firstly the basic terms used in the field of microbial control
and how can we select the correct microbi
CHAPTER (4) MICROSCOPY, STAINING, AND CLASSIFICATION
Microscopy refers to the use of light or electrons to magnify objects.
The science of microbiology began when Leeuwenhoek used primitive microscopes to
observe and report the
APPLICATION OF MICROORGANISMS BY MAN
1- Making food with microorganisms
This part will be made by the students as activity work:
a- Yeast is used for making alcohol.
b- Yeast is used for making bread.
c- Bacteria are used to make yoghurt and cheese.
1- SCOPE OF THERMODYNAMICS
Thermodynamics is an experimental science based on a
small number of principles (laws) that are generalizations
made from experience.
It is concerned with macroscopic (large-scale or meas
-Taste (trigeminal response) and Aroma-
What type of molecules do you expect to have an aroma?
Sweet (sugar, saccharin)
Bitter (caffeine, theo
Whats actually in the food you
Birth of Artificial Flavors
It is speculated that artificial
flavors were first created by
complete accident when a
German chemist mixed
chemicals and was presented
with the sweet aroma of
Testcross and Mendelian Genetics in
Testcross = a cross, between an organism of dominant
phenotype (genotype unknown) and an organism of recessive
phenotype (genotype known to be homozygous recessive)
AA + aa =
Shahd Mahmoud 201350216
Ranad Sameer 201350351
What is flavor?
Flavoris the sensory impression offood, and is
determined primarily by the chemical senses of
The flavor of the food can be altered withnaturalor
General Genetics BIOL 270
Student ID #:
Please answer the following questions and show the crosses in tables.
Q1 ) In Drosophila, allele for short wing ( d ) is recessive to long wing allele ( D ), and allele of white
Heritage from Mendel
Monohybrid Crosses and
Mendels Principle of
The principle of genes transmission from parents to
offspring was established by Gregor Johann Mendel
G. Mendel carried
DNA The Genetic Material
Genetic material must be able to:
Contain the information necessary to
construct an entire organism
Pass from parent to offspring and from cell to
cell during cell division
Be accurately copied
Account for the known variation