4
Ray theory: Travel times
Seismic ray theory is analogous to optical ray theory and has been applied for
over 100 years to interpret seismic data. It continues to be used extensively today, owing to its simplicity and applicability to a wide range of pro
2
Stress and strain
Any quantitative description of seismic wave propagation or of earthquake physics
requires the ability to characterize the internal forces and deformations in solid
materials. We now begin a brief review of those parts of stress and st
3
The seismic wave equation
Using the stress and strain theory developed in the previous chapter, we now construct and solve the seismic wave equation for elastic wave propagation in a uniform
whole space. We will show that two types of solutions are poss
1
Introduction
Every day there are about fifty earthquakes worldwide that are strong enough to
be felt locally, and every few days an earthquake occurs that is capable of damaging structures. Each event radiates seismic waves that travel throughout Earth,
Seismology: Measuring the Interior of the Earth
Seismology Group
IISER Kolkata
Overview of Seismology
Earthquakes
(Passive Source)
Generates
Seismic Waves
Propagate away
from source and
samples the
Earth structure
Free Surface ground
motions caused by
the
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Thursday 31 May 2001
Part IA
9.00 to 12.00
PAPER 1
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I. You
may attempt all four questions in Section I
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Thursday 30 May 2002
Part IA
9.00 to 12.00
PAPER 1
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I.
You may attempt all four questions in Section I.
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Wednesday 5 June 2002
Part II
Alternative A
9 to 12
PAPER 3
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question is divided into Part (i) and Part (ii), which may or may not be
related. Candidates may attempt either or bot
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Monday 3 June 2002
Part II
Alternative A
1.30 to 4.30
PAPER 1
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question is divided into Part (i) and Part (ii), which may or may not be
related. Candidates may attempt either or b
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Friday 1 June 2001
Part IA
1.30 to 4.30
PAPER 2
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I. You
may attempt all four questions in Section I and
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Monday 4 June 2001
Part II
Alternative A
1.30 to 4.30
PAPER 1
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question is divided into Part (i) and Part (ii), which may or may not be
related. Candidates may attempt either or b
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Wednesday 5 June 2002
Part IB
1.30 to 4.30
PAPER 1
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I.
Candidates may attempt at most four questions fr
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Wednesday 6 June 2001
Part IB
1.30 to 4.30
PAPER 1
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I.
Candidates may attempt at most four questions in
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Monday 3 June 2002
Part II
Alternative B
1.30 to 4.30
PAPER 1
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
The number of marks for each question is the same. Additional credit will be given
for a substantially complete answer.
W
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Tuesday 4 June 2002
Part IA
1.30 - 4.30
PAPER 3
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I.
You may attempt all four questions in Section I. In
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Monday 4 June 2001
Part IA
9.00 to 12.00
PAPER 4
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I. You
may attempt all four questions in Section I an
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Wednesday 5 June 2002
Part II
Alternative B
9 to 12
PAPER 3
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
The number of marks for each question is the same. Additional credit will be given
for a substantially complete answer.
Wri
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Friday 6 June 2003
Part II
Alternative A
9 to 12
PAPER 4
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Candidates must not attempt more than FOUR questions.
The number of marks for each question is the same. Additional credit wil
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Tuesday 5 June 2001
Part II
Alternative A
9.00 to 12.00
PAPER 2
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question is divided into Part (i) and Part (ii), which may or may not be
related. Candidates may attempt either or
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Monday 2 June 2003
Part II
Alternative B
1.30 to 4.30
PAPER 1
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
The number of marks for each question is the same. Additional credit will be given
for a substantially complete answer.
W
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Thursday 5 June 2003
Part II
Alternative B
1.30 to 4.30
PAPER 3
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
The number of marks for each question is the same. Additional credit will be given
for a substantially complete answer.
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Thursday 5 June 2003
Part II
Alternative A
1.30 to 4.30
PAPER 3
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question is divided into Part (i) and Part (ii), which may or may not be
related. Candidates may attempt either or
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Monday 3 June 2002
Part IA
9.00 to 12.00
PAPER 4
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I.
You may attempt all four questions in Section I. I
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Thursday 6 June 2002
Part II
Alternative A
1.30 to 4.30
PAPER 4
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Candidates must not attempt more than FOUR questions. If you submit answers
to more than four questions, your lowest sc
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Friday 8 June 2001
Part IB
9 to 12
PAPER 3
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I.
Candidates may attempt at most four questions in Section
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Wednesday 4 June 2003
Part II
Alternative A
9 to 12
PAPER 2
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question is divided into Part (i) and Part (ii), which may or may not be
related. Candidates may attempt either or bot
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Tuesday 5 June 2001
Part IA
1.30 to 4.30
PAPER 3
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I. You
may attempt all four questions in Section I an
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Thursday 7 June 2001
Part II
Alternative B
1.30 to 4.30
PAPER 4
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Candidates must not attempt more than FOUR questions.
The number of marks for each question is the same. Additional cre
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Thursday 6 June 2002
Part IB
9 to 12
PAPER 2
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I.
Candidates may attempt at most four questions from Sec
MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS
Wednesday 2 June 2003
Part II
Alternative B
9 to 12
PAPER 2
Before you begin read these instructions carefully.
The number of marks for each question is the same. Additional credit will be given
for a substantially complete answer.
Wri