Application Brief
ANSYS AIM Streamlines Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Design
Optimizing the design of a shell and tube heat exchanger is a challenging multiphysics design
problem that requires understanding the fluid flow through the device, the heat tran
FLUIDISED BED (LIQUID-SOLID AND GAS SOLID)
AIM:
a. To observe Liquid-Solid and Gas-Solid fluidisation in packed bed and establish the
relation between pressure drop across the bed and velocity of fluid flow through the
bed.
b. To obtain the minimum fluidi
CH 3510: Mechanical Operations Lab
Experiment: Determination of specific
surface area of non porous materials
B Narasimhan: CH11B043
Naveenraaj K.P: CH11B044
Raghuveer P: CH11B045
AIM:
To determine the specific surface area of non - porous material using
CH 3510 : Mechanical Operations Lab Report
Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras
Ball Milling 2 Effect of Moisture
B Narasimhan (CH11B043)
Naveenraaj K.P. (CH11B044)
P. Raghuveer (CH11B045)
Aim:
To perform batch ball milling operation on two rice
MINOR LOSSES IN PIPES
Losses caused by fittings, bends, valves, etc.
1
Minor in comparison to friction losses which are
considered major.
Losses are proportional to velocity of flow, geometry of
device.
hL = K (v 2 / 2 g )
The value of K is typically
CH 3510: Mechanical Operations Lab
Experiment: Sedimentation Studies
B Narasimhan: CH11B043
Naveenraaj K.P: CH11B044
Raghuveer P: CH11B045
AIM
To study the settling of a suspension of Calcium Carbonate in water and to find the
dependence of sedimentation
Height vs time for Conc = 45 g/l
-5.43571 -5.135714 -4.492857
Height (cm)
H1
H2
H3
For C = 35g/l For C = 45g/l For C = 55g/l
100
100
100
87.5
89.5
90
77
79.5
82
66
69
72
56
63.5
Height59 time for Conc
vs
45
48.5
55
35.5
38.5
47
120
25.5
28
38.5
100 13
18
8/6/13
Chapter 4_Lect Notes_Fluid Through Packed Beds and Fluidization
CHAPTER 4: FLOW THROUGH PACKED FIXED AND FLUIDIZED BEDS
Chemical engineering operations commonly involve the use of packed fixed and fluidized beds. These are equipment in which a larg
MOMENTUM TRANSFER LAB
Experiment 4
Venturimeter and Orificemeter
Salady Varun Teja CH11B057
Shivamshu Prabhakar CH11B058
Shreyas Nair CH11B059
Siva Prasad CH11B060
AIM
1. To analyze the working of the Venturi meter and the Orifice meter
2. To find the dis
Aim:
To calculate the minor losses in a fluid(water) flowing through a pipe. These losses are
calculated for an elbow in the G.I pipe and well as the contraction and expansion losses in the
pipe.
Apparatus:
G.I pipe, acrylic pipe with an expansion, consta
CH 3510: Momentum Transfer Lab
Experiment: Friction Studies in Flow through Pipes
Expt. Date: 26th August 2013
Submission Date: 2nd September 2013
B Narasimhan: CH11B043
Naveenraaj K.P: CH11B044
P Raghuveer: CH11B045
AIM
To study the pressure drop across
MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND MECHANICAL OPERATIONS LAB
EXPERIMENT-1 Settling of spherical and non-spherical particles in Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
CH11B067, CH11B068, CH11B070
AIM:
1.To determine terminal settling velocity for 6 differently shaped obje
Mechanical design of Shell & Tube HEXs
It involves the Design of at least the following Components
1. Shell thickness , taking into account its longitudinal / bending
stresses.
2. Shell flange and channel flange design.
3. Dished end calculation.
4. Desig
BELLs METHOD
Ideal cross-flow Heat Transfer coefficient
Fn, tube row correction factor
Fw, window correction factor
Fb, bypass correction factor
FL, Leakage correction factor
Pressure drop
The pressure drops in the cross-flow and window zones are determin
Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Method
(used when information to calculate the LMTD is insufficient.)
Q: What is the maximum possible heat transfer in a
counter-flow HEX of infinite length?
A: The maximum possible temperature difference is
Tin . Hence qmax
Flow-Induced Vibration of S&T HEXs
BASIC PRINCIPLES
Flow-induced vibration in shell & tube HEXs has been known for
a long time and is caused by due to cross-flow velocities.
It has the following effects:
(1) Repeated mid-span impact causing thinning of tu
PIPING - STRESS ANALYSIS
Typical Problems
Where,
ASME B31.3 covers
Materials of construction
Piping design process
Fabrication, Erection, Assembly
Design of supports
Examination, inspection, and testing
ALLOWABLE STRESS AS PER CODE
As per the ASME B3
Thermo-Hydraulic Design of HEXs
Kern s Procedure
:
INTRODUCTION
Kern published a basic design procedure for a
variety of HEX in 1950 .
An article in 1979 by Taborek outlines how HEX
design techniques evolved since Kerns days.
With the advent of PCs, th
Pipe Fittings & Components
Elbows
Tees
Reducers
Lateral Fittings
Caps
Couplings
Nipples
Strainer
Steam Trap
Elbows
Elbows make an angle between adjacent pipes.
There are standard elbows of 90 degrees and 45
degrees. Other angle elbows are specially made
Several Standards are referred by Piping Engineers since
they serve several industries
The American Petroleum Institute (API)
The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
The American Society for Testing an
Rough Sizing
Choosing The arrangement, Shell/ tube diameters,
Thickness & length
1. Tube Bundle Types
Main objectives in the mechanical design of the tube bundle and the shell are
i)accommodate thermal expansion ii) allow easy cleaning iii) keep the cost
PIPING DRAWINGS
WHAT IS AN ISOMETRIC?
+Y
+Z
120
+X
30
Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)
A diagram in the process industry which shows
the piping of the process flow together with
the installed equipment and instrumentation.
4
IN
4
4
4 300#
4 300#
Design of Vessels
Under External Pressure
Typical External Pressure Vessels
i) Submarines - Long, cylindrical types, Small Spherical types, Bathyspheres.
A spherical pressure hull of 5 m dia., diving to a depth of 1000 m, has to
withstand a pressure of 10
Piping Design Basics
Diameter, Pressure drop & Material Selection
DESIGN PROCESS:
Primary Design Consideration is Safety
Evaluate Process Conditions
Temperature
Pressure
Chemical compatibility/Corrosion allowances
Vibration, flexing, bending
Expansi
Design of Tall Cylindrical Vessels
Introduction
Tall, cylindrical process columns are self-supporting
structures - supported on cylindrical / conical shells (skirts)
with a base ring.
The ring rests on a concrete foundation and firmly fixed to
the found
SHELL & TUBE HEXs
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Why shell-and-tube?
A survey: S&T accounted for 85% of new
exchangers supplied to oil-refining, chemical,
petrochemical and power companies in leading
European countries.
Why?
Can be designed for almost any duty