: LCA Turtles and birds (link).
Range: from the Late Carboniferous.
Phylogeny: Sauropsida: Mesosauridae + *: Anapsida + Eureptilia.
Characters: Tabular small or absent; large posttemporal fenestra; suborbital foramen (small
hole near the lateral
6. Typhlonectidae TAYLOR, 1968 Aquatic caecilians with no tail
and a rounded cloacal opening. Dermal scales lacking or very reduced
as in Typhlonectes compressicauda. Small tentacles, originating
between the nasal opening and the eye.
The lepospondyls consist of four orders of mostly small aquatic tetrapods. All
are limited to the Carboniferous and/or early Permian. They may or may not be
an artificial (polyphyletic) group. They may be ancestral to modern am
The pectoral fin of Panderichthys and the origin of
digitsatherine A. Boisvert1, Elga Mark-Kurik2 & Per E.
One of the identifying characteristics of tetrapods
(limbed vertebrates) is the presence of fingers and toe
extinct genus of lungfish
from the late Devonian
period of Australia and
Tarpons, bonefish, eels , etc.
Range: possibly from Jurassic, certainly from the
Phylogeny: Elopocephala: Clup
Derived (modified) different from the ancestral condition
- feet of terrestrial vertebrates
Shared derived character - synapomorphies
Plesiomorphies similar to the ancestor
- vertebral column
Go with chapter 33,34 Invertebrates, Vertebrates
46.1 Both asexual and sexual reproducAon occur in the animal kingdom
46.2 FerAlizaAon depends on mechanisms that bring together sperm and eggs of
Overview: The DNA Toolbox
In recombinant DNA, nucleotide sequences from
two different sources, often two species, are
combined in vitro into the same DNA molecule
Methods for making recombinant DNA are central
to genetic enginee
Form, func7on, temperature (energy)
40.1 Animal form and func7on are correlated at all levels of organiza7on
Table 40.1 Cells 7ssues organs systems
Definition of S at a process of the free expansion of an
Initial state i (Fig. 20-1a) final state f (Fig. 20-1b)
is an irreversible process; all the molecules of the gas
will never return to the left half of the container.
Entropy and the 2nd law of
Reversible and irreversible processes
Idea of entropy
The 2nd law of thermodynamics
The popcorn pops
kinetic theory of gases
Kinetic theory calculations of pressure and
Internal energy and equipartition of energy
Specific heat of ideal gas
18 Temperature, Heat, and the
First Law of Thermodynamics
One of the principal branches of physics and
engineering is thermodynamics ( ), which is
the study and application of the thermal energy
(internal energy) of systems.
One of the central concepts of
A sound wave is defined
roughly as any longitudinal
In this chapter we shall focus
on sound waves that travel
through the air and that are
audible () to people.
Wavefronts ( ) are
surfaces over which the
oscillations due to the sound
Two main types of waves :
1. Mechanical waves : (+ medium)
sound waves, water waves, grain waves.
2. Electromagnetic waves :
visible light, radio waves, television signals, x-rays.
Basic variables of wave motion
Simple Harmonic Motion
Hookes law : Fs = -kx
Mathematical representation of simple harmonic motion
Fs = kx = ma
dv d 2 x
= 2 = = 2 x
x (t ) = A cos(t + )
: phase angle
A fluid is a collection of molecules that are randomly arranged and held together
by weak cohesive forces and by forces exerted by the walls of a container.
Both liquids and gases are fluids.
The force exerted by a fluid on an object is a
Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation
Every particle in the Universe attracts every other particle with a force (field force)
that is directly proportional to the product of their masses
and inversely proportional to the square of th
Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
They are not equivalent.
Two forces F1 and F2 are equivalent if and only if F1=F2 and
if and only if the two produce the same torque about any axis.
Two forces of equal magnitude form a couple
if their lines
Chapter 11 Rolling, Torque, Angular Momentum
Rolling Motion of A Rigid Object
Consider a uniform cylinder of radius R rolling without slipping on a horizontal surface
The linear speed of the center of mass for pure rolling
motion is given by
Chapter 10 Rotation
A rigid object is one that is nondeformable- that is, it is an object in which
the separations between all pairs of particles remains constant.
s = r
unit : radian (rad)
( rad ) =
Polar coordinates (r,)
Chapter 10 Ro
Linear Momentum and Collisions
The linear momentum of a particle of mass m moving with a velocity
v is defined to be the product of the mass and velocity:
The word momentum comes from the Latin word for movement.
Chapter 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
Potential Energy U
The potential energy U is the energy associated with a system of objects.
Potential energy can be thought of as stored energy that can either do work
or be converted to kinetic ene