onlydo the two egos exist within the state of negative
hallucination, but also within the normal state.
The facts of hypnotic,memory alone -.tronglciyandteithe
intelligent nature of the subconscious, ('an
the theoryof uncon.-.cious cerebration x explain,f
writes 'pavilion.'I write 'Sal,'and the hand writes
' Salpetriere.' Here it is still more obvious that we
are in the presence of a hidden agency that can take
hints and developthem intelligently.
We saw above that distraction of attention is one
of the in
" Sentences are commenced without knowledgeof
mine as to their subjector ending.
" There is in progress now at uncertain times,not
subjectto my will,a series of twenty-four chaptersupon
the scientificfeatures of lifem,oral,spirituaelt,ernal.
Seven have al
presence of No. 1. A few minutes later her eyes
138 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SUGGESTION.
closed ; presentlyshe drew two or three short,quick
respiration";sagainher countenance changed,and No.
3 was back again. She turned to me and said,'So
No. 1 came to hear h
healthyand exceptionalliyntelligent, . sat with Mr.
Hodgson and myself,January24, 1889,with his right
hand extended on the instrument [planchettea]n,d his
face averted and buried in the hollow of his left arm,
which layalongthe table. Care was taken not t
while the rest of us were talkingwith one another.
Some one happening to mention the name of Mr. X.,
"in whom Mr. W. is much interested,Mr. W. raised
his head and asked,' What was that about Mr. X. ?'
He knew nothinghe told us about our previouscsaontiveo
both knowledgeabout and knowledge of acquaintance.
A close examination of the two theories shows that
neither the bundle of associationism nor Prof. James's
passingthoughtgivesus a true account of personality.
or personality is not a seri
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SUBCONSCIOUSNESS. 209
tomicallyconnected with other cells. Every nervecell
with all its processes forms a distinct and isolated
morphologicalindividual. Every nerve-cell aicnaltlomyconsidered
is a cploem-te
unit. The processes
by his name, Y. F. With a wave of his hand and
with a half-humourous,half-ironical smile of the man
who knows better,he pointedto Miss B.,saying," This
is Y. F."
Exp. Pardon me, what is your name ?
Sub. (witha smile).My name is Dr. Sidis,'and " let
262 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SUGGESTION.
mistakenh,e is a cigar-maker.He complainsof ahceahde-s
Exp. And how are you ?
Sub. Oh, I am well.
Exp. Can you tell me anythingmore about Ab.
Sub. I told you I met him but once.
Exp. Have y
It is not necessary to make suggestiontso each jseubc-t
separately.If a hypnotizableperson is presentat
a seance, he takes the hint at once, and when he is hnoypt-ized
he manifests phenomena similar to the one he
has witnessed. He knows exactlywhat the hy
y,the contrary,the slitis deep and
lasting " it is a severe gash. In both cases, however,
we have a removal,a dissociation of the waking from
the subwaking,reflex consciousnessan,d suggestionbien-g
effected onlythroughthe latter. It is the isnubg,wakthe
its wider range of sensibiliotry,on account of the pteomr-ary
inhibition of the upper consciousness,gets the
perceptiofnirstan,d after some appreciablienterval it is
transmitted with a feelingof pastnessto the upper cscoin-ousness,
which by this time alre
The crowd is in a state of overstrained expectatio;n
with suspendedbreath it watches the hero or the einsteinr-g,
are excluded,put down, driven away by main force.
So greatis the silence induced in the
THE SUBCONSCIOUS SELF. 125
ganglioncells,h"e uses "modifications of nerve emelen-ts."
" It may be supposed,"says Maudsley," that
the firstactivity did leave behind it,when it subsided,
some after-effecsotme, modification of the nerve emelen-t,
This inquisitorial mode of execution
" without shedding human blood "
was by suggestion
changed to hanging, the
of execution commonly
in use in this country to inflict capital punishment,
of murder common to all American ilnygnchmob
" This was all that was known of the case up to
June 1,1890,when I induced Mr. Bourne to submit to
hypnotism,so as to see whether in the hypnotictrance
his Brown memory (Brown self-consciousnewsosul)d
not come back. It did so with surprising readiness " s
the tragediesof historical life.
Laws and mobs, societyand epidemics " are they
not antagonisti?c In pointof fact theyare intimately,
vitallyinterrelatetdh,ey are two sides of the same
Under normal conditions social activity no doubt
taken by the fugitives. . At one point the troop
dashed againstthe closed toll-gate and smashed it
to pieces,while . . . many plunged againststakes or
other obstructionss,eriousliynjuringthemselves. Seerav-l
dropped down dead within an hour ; some were
" On March 9 I saw in the crystal a rocky coast, a
rough sea, an expanse of sand in the foreground. As
I watched, the picture was nearly effaced by that of a
Two days later I was reading a volume of
poetry which I remembered having cut open, talk
secret crime,that out of a million of witches not one
would be convicted if the usual course were followed " !
Thousands upon thousands of victims were cruelly
sacrificed to that insane fear of evil spirits.Nbeureg,mGeneva, Paris,Toulouse,Lyons,and many o
the particulaw^ras fifty-four.*
I then made with the same number of subjects
another set of experimentsthat should correspondto
Class B, made on myself" namely,to tell the subjects
the particulacrharacters used,which were :
Letters B, Z, K, U, H.
the organ of tune,' to sing'
; between this and wit,* to
be judicious '
; the boundarybetween wit and causality,
' to be clever '
; causality, ' to have knowledge,'and so
Heidenhein found that in pressingcertain regions
of the subject'bsody certain
as was Saul's sparingAgag." He says also that the
crime is so abominable that it may be provedby deevin-ce
which would not be received againstany other
offenders " young children who knew not the nature of
an oath and persons of an infamous character bein
that Mill himself,when " speakingof what may rightly
be demanded of a theorists,ays :
* He is not entitled to
frame a theoryfrom one class of phenomena,extend to
another class which it does not fit,and excuse himself
* See Lloyd Morgan's ComparativePsycho
6. Inhibition. 6. Inhibition.
7. Immediate execution. 7.
88 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SUGGESTION.
A glanceat our last table will show at once that the
conditions in both cases are essentialtlhye same, with
the onlydifference that in abnormal suggestibilitwto
Where, then,does the fact of self-nceosnssciouscome
in ? Self-consciousness can not be in the
mere object-consciousnefosrs,in it the objectoccupies
the whole field of mental visiona,nd,besidest,he jobe-ct
content is but the material,the inheritance of
taken by chance by p, immediate suggestionby a;,locality
suggestionby y, number suggestionby z, we have :
(2p + y)
Solvingthese equationsand eliminatinpg, we have:
Percentagex = 32*1 per cent.
" y= 6-2 "
z= 3-3 "
Experi- - Immediate Locality Number
the alerta,nd a judgmentperfectlcyapable
of countingthe days,as is shown by its beingable to
make these multiplicatioannds divisions."
The experimentsof E. Gourney confirm the same
truth " that behind the primaryupper consciousness a
Let EI representthe energy of another mob, whose iniinitial
energy is also s, but the number of individuals is
different, say m, then the relation of the two mob-energies
will be :
ms . . B_=-r"m + 2"_.m(m
Puttingml = n m, we have :
J - _J?L"JL v P