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KEY STAGE
3
LEVELS
Mark scheme for
Papers 1 and 2
2005
37
2005
department for
education and skills
creating opportunity, releasing potential, achieving excellence
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2005 KS3 Science Mark Scheme
Tiers 36 and 57
Structure and Bonding
Teacher Notes
Structure and Bonding is funded as part of the Reach and Teach educational programme supported by the Wolfson Foundation
THE
WOLFSON
FOUNDATION
www.rsc.org
Registered Charity Number 207890
Structure and Bonding
Why focu
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Boardworks Ltd 2010
2 of 40
Boardworks Ltd 2010
Transition metals as catalysts
A catalyst is a substance that speeds up reactions
by providing an alternative reaction route with lower
activation energy.
Transition metals are good catalysts for t
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Boardworks Ltd 2010
Electrochemical cells
Redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between
two species. The flow of electrons is an electrical current.
Redox reactions can therefore be used to generate
electr
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Boardworks Ltd 2010
Recognising redox reactions
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Oxidation and reduction
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Oxidation states
Oxidation states, sometimes called oxidation numbers,
are a simple way
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Rate of reaction and activation energy
Reactions occur when reactant particles collide with a
minimum amount of energy called the activation energy.
The rate of reaction is
defined as the change in
Thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate
Class practical
Calcium carbonate is strongly heated until it undergoes thermal decomposition to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.
The calcium oxide (unslaked lime) is dissolved in water to form calcium hydr
Making and testing ammonia
Class practical
In this experiment pupils make ammonia, investigate its solubility in water and its alkaline nature. The experiment provides a
useful precursor to the ammonia fountain experiment.
Lesson organisation
Because ammo
Universal indicator rainbow
Demonstration
A long glass tube is filled with a neutral solution of Universal indicator. Hydrochloric acid is added to one end and sodium
hydroxide solution to the other. The tube is inverted a few times to mix the solutions a
Testing the pH of oxides
Class practical
The aim of this experiment is to help establish the idea that the soluble oxides of metals are alkaline and the oxides of nonmetals are acidic. Students test samples of a range of oxides in water with Universal ind
Gridlocks can you unlock the grid?
Shapes of molecules distortion from the pure geometry
Before you answer the puzzles below fill in the table of molecules based on a tetrahedral geometry using:
tetrahedral
Molecule
107
Shape
104.5
bent
Bond angle
Drawing
Microscale preparation of ethyl benzoate
Class practical
The ester, ethyl benzoate, is prepared using a microscale technique, from benzoic acid and ethanol mixed in a plastic pipette
and warmed in a waterbath. The ester is identified by smell.
Lesson orga
Gridlocks can you unlock the grid?
Shapes of molecules hybrid orbitals
Before you answer the puzzles below fill in the table of geometries using:
square planar
Hybrid orbital
Geometry
sp
linear
180
Undistorted
bond angle
2
3
tetrahedral
trigonal
bipyramid
INVESTIGATING OPTICAL ISOMERISM
A molecule that is chiral or optically active has a non-superimposable mirror image. For
example your hands are chiral (in fact cheir is the Greek for hand) as your left and right
hands are mirror images but there is no way
Chemguide questions
ALDEHYDES AND KETONES: THE TRIIODOMETHANE (IODOFORM)
REACTION
1. a) How would you carry out the triiodomethane reaction on a sample of an aldehyde or ketone?
(Either method given on the Chemguide page is acceptable.)
b) What would happ
Gridlocks can you unlock the grid?
Shapes of molecules the geometry of the central atom
Before you answer the puzzles below fill in the table of geometries using:
tetrahedral
120
109.5
Number of
electron pairs
Geometry
Undistorted
bond angle
2
linear
180
Name_ Student ID _
1. Let
2
f ( x) x 2
, evaluate (i)
f (2)
and (ii)
f (a 2)
(2 marks)
2. Determine the domain of the function
2
k ( x) x 2
x
. Is the point (1,-2) on the graph of the
function k(x)?
(2 marks)
3. Let
2
f ( x) x 2 x 1
and
2
g ( x)
3x 1
Chapter 1
Limits and Continuity
1.1
Limits
The limits is the fundamental notion of calculus. This underlying concept is the thread
that binds together virtually all of the calculus you are about to study.
In this section, we develop the notion of limit us
Chapter 5
Applications of Definite Integral
5.1
Area Between Two Curves
In this section we use integrals to find areas of regions that lie between the graphs of
two functions.
Consider the region that lies between two curves y = f (x) and y = g(x) and bet
Chapter 6
Techniques of Integration
6.1
Integration by Parts
Every differentiation rule has a corresponding integration rule. For instance, the Substitution Rule for integration corresponds to the Chain Rule for differentiation. The rule
that corresponds
Chapter 2
Differentiation
2.1
Tangent Lines and Rates of Change
2.1.1
Tangent Lines
If a curveC has equation y = f (x) and we want ti find the
tangent to C at the point
P a, f (a) , then we consider the nearby point Q x, f (x) , where x 6= a, and compute
Chapter 3
Applications of Differentiation
3.1
Related Rates
In this section we shall study related rates problems. In such problems one tries to
find the rate at which some quantity is changing by relating it to other quantities whose
rates of change are
Chapter 7
Infinite Sequence and Series
7.1
Sequences
A sequence can be thought of as a list of numbers written in a definite order:
a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , . . . , an , . . .
The number a1 is called the first term, a2 is the second term, and in general an is
64
MA111: Prepared by Asst.Prof.Dr. Archara Pacheenburawana
3.3
Maximum and Minimum Values of a Function
Some of the most important applications of differential calculus are optimization problems, in which we are required to find the optimal (best) way of
Chapter 4
Integration
4.1
Antiderivatives; The Indefinite Integral
Antiderivatives
Definition 4.1.
A function F is called an antiderivative of f on an interval I if F 0 (x) = f (x)
for all x in I.
For instance, let f (x) = x2 . It isnt difficult to discov
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Keywords
Match the word to its meaning using
arrows
Atom
Two or more different atoms that are
chemically joined
Element
Two or more atoms chemically joined
Compoun
d
Mixture
Molecule
The smallest particle
Made of only one type of atom
Two or more differen
Proteins
Enzymes as Biological
Catalysts
Increase reaction rates by
over 1,000,000-fold
Two fundamental
properties
Increase the reaction rate
with no alteration of the
enzyme
Increase the reaction rate
without altering the
equilibrium
Reduce the activatio
Separating mixtures
Cut out and stick the correct picture with its
name and what it separates into your book
Chromatograph
y
Separates liquids with
different boiling points
Distillation
Separates a liquid and solid
by boiling off the liquid
Filtration
Sep