Mole: Is a number that stays the same
that is used to measure elements (atoms),
covalent compounds (molecules) and ionic
compounds (formula units).
It is a lot like a dozen only a much larger
1 dozen = 12 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023
Daltons atomic Theory and Law of
John Dalton came up with the
following theory in 1808 which has 4
Elements are made of tiny particles
Each element is characterized by
the mass of its atoms. Atoms of
The Mole and conversions.
When ever you are converting 1st start by
putting the given measurement over 1 to
begin dimensional analysis.
Example: convert 10 g of Mg to moles.
10 g of Mg
When converting from grams to Moles or
vice versa, you can use the m
Solubility: is a substances ability do
dissolve in water.
Solute: is the solid that is dissolved in
Solvent: is the liquid (usually water) that
is dissolving the solid.
Example: Salt and water
There are two mai
The volume of a Mole of any gas will
occupy the same volume under standard
temperature and pressure (S.T.P.).
S.T.P. is considered normal
conditions based on the following
Standard Temp: 0 C or 273 Kelvin
Molecular and Empirical Formulas
Molecular Formulas: are the actual
symbols and subscripts of the
Example: Hydrogen Peroxides
Molecular formula is H2O2.
Empirical Formulas: are lowest possible
whole number ratios of the compound.
Activity Series: are lists of elements with
the most reactive element on the top and the
least reactive on the bottom.
Example: Li most reactive
Na least reactive
LiCl+ Na Can this happen?
No. Because Na is not more reacti
A Standard Solutions are solutions
that have a Molarity of 1.0.
Molarity = moles / liter
In order to make standard solution
you would need to get the molar mass of
the compound and dissolve that amount
of the chemical in 1 liter of wate
Predicting Decomposition, Synthesis and
Single replacement reactions
Synthesis and Decomposition: no way of
knowing unless you see the reactions happen
so, if you are looking at these types of
equations you need to assume that there is
enough energy prese
Catalysts, Reaction Rates
Reaction rate: is the speed at which a
reaction takes place.
Reaction rate can be determined by
timing how fast the reactants of a reaction
Catalyst: is a substance that speeds up the
reaction rate without chem