C. systems: are interactions between
matter that go through 3 main processes that
change their energy:
1.) Heating and Cooling.
2.) Phase Changes.
3.) Chemical Changes.
The temperature of different types of matter
can interact in differen
Theoretical yield and
Theoretical yield: is the amount of product
that is produced (could be any of the
products) based on the limiting reactant.
This is calculated without making (or being
given) any measurements.
Percent yield: is a perce
Converting to Moles with solutions
All solutions are made of some soluble
compound that is dissolved in water.
Molarity (M) is the concentration of the
solution. The higher the number is the more
concentrated the solution.
How many grams of Calci
Enthalpy (AKA delta H): is the amount
of energy either given off (exothermic) or
taken in (endothermic).
Each chemical reaction has a specific
enthalpy that is reached.
If the specific amount of energy is not
reached or passed then the reaction e
Salts and pH
Salts: are a product of neutralization. They are
made of the positive ion in the base and the
negative ion in the acid.
The pH of salts can be acidic, basic or neutral.
If the positive part of the salt gets to the
negative end of the water fa
The Molarity of an acid (must have H in it)
or a base (must have OH in it) can be found
You can do this by using the volumes of the
acid and the base that were used to
neutralize each other.
Titration and pH Indicator
pH Indicators: are usually solutions (pH paper can
also be used) that will change colors due to the
concentration of negative and positive ions.
Titration: is the process of carefully keeping track of
the quantity of two solutio
Reaction rate: is the amount of time that
a chemical reaction takes place based on
the limiting reactant.
Reaction rate can be measured by timing
how long it takes the limiting reactant to
change into one or several of the
Acid and Base
All real acids have Hydrogen ion in them.
The strength of an acid is determined by how
quickly Hydronium (H3O) ions are created when
the acid is added to water.
The making of these ions are determined by
how easily the Hydrogen ion
Limiting reactant: is the reactant that will not allow
the reaction to occur unless there is enough of it to
carry out the reaction.
Example: Oxygen is required when ever
something is burned (this is why fires are often
smothered when be