Limiting reactant: is the reactant that will not allow
the reaction to occur unless there is enough of it to
carry out the reaction.
Example: Oxygen is required when ever
something is burned (this is why fires are often
smothered when be
Theoretical yield and
Theoretical yield: is the amount of product
that is produced (could be any of the
products) based on the limiting reactant.
This is calculated without making (or being
given) any measurements.
Percent yield: is a perce
Converting to Moles with solutions
All solutions are made of some soluble
compound that is dissolved in water.
Molarity (M) is the concentration of the
solution. The higher the number is the more
concentrated the solution.
How many grams of Calci
Enthalpy (AKA delta H): is the amount
of energy either given off (exothermic) or
taken in (endothermic).
Each chemical reaction has a specific
enthalpy that is reached.
If the specific amount of energy is not
reached or passed then the reaction e
Salts and pH
Salts: are a product of neutralization. They are
made of the positive ion in the base and the
negative ion in the acid.
The pH of salts can be acidic, basic or neutral.
If the positive part of the salt gets to the
negative end of the water fa
The Molarity of an acid (must have H in it)
or a base (must have OH in it) can be found
You can do this by using the volumes of the
acid and the base that were used to
neutralize each other.
Titration and pH Indicator
pH Indicators: are usually solutions (pH paper can
also be used) that will change colors due to the
concentration of negative and positive ions.
Titration: is the process of carefully keeping track of
the quantity of two solutio
Reaction rate: is the amount of time that
a chemical reaction takes place based on
the limiting reactant.
Reaction rate can be measured by timing
how long it takes the limiting reactant to
change into one or several of the
Acid and Base
All real acids have Hydrogen ion in them.
The strength of an acid is determined by how
quickly Hydronium (H3O) ions are created when
the acid is added to water.
The making of these ions are determined by
how easily the Hydrogen ion
C. systems: are interactions between
matter that go through 3 main processes that
change their energy:
1.) Heating and Cooling.
2.) Phase Changes.
3.) Chemical Changes.
The temperature of different types of matter
can interact in differen
Mole: Is a number that stays the same
that is used to measure elements (atoms),
covalent compounds (molecules) and ionic
compounds (formula units).
It is a lot like a dozen only a much larger
1 dozen = 12 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023
Daltons atomic Theory and Law of
John Dalton came up with the
following theory in 1808 which has 4
Elements are made of tiny particles
Each element is characterized by
the mass of its atoms. Atoms of
The Mole and conversions.
When ever you are converting 1st start by
putting the given measurement over 1 to
begin dimensional analysis.
Example: convert 10 g of Mg to moles.
10 g of Mg
When converting from grams to Moles or
vice versa, you can use the m
Solubility: is a substances ability do
dissolve in water.
Solute: is the solid that is dissolved in
Solvent: is the liquid (usually water) that
is dissolving the solid.
Example: Salt and water
There are two mai
The volume of a Mole of any gas will
occupy the same volume under standard
temperature and pressure (S.T.P.).
S.T.P. is considered normal
conditions based on the following
Standard Temp: 0 C or 273 Kelvin
Molecular and Empirical Formulas
Molecular Formulas: are the actual
symbols and subscripts of the
Example: Hydrogen Peroxides
Molecular formula is H2O2.
Empirical Formulas: are lowest possible
whole number ratios of the compound.
Activity Series: are lists of elements with
the most reactive element on the top and the
least reactive on the bottom.
Example: Li most reactive
Na least reactive
LiCl+ Na Can this happen?
No. Because Na is not more reacti
A Standard Solutions are solutions
that have a Molarity of 1.0.
Molarity = moles / liter
In order to make standard solution
you would need to get the molar mass of
the compound and dissolve that amount
of the chemical in 1 liter of wate
Predicting Decomposition, Synthesis and
Single replacement reactions
Synthesis and Decomposition: no way of
knowing unless you see the reactions happen
so, if you are looking at these types of
equations you need to assume that there is
enough energy prese
Catalysts, Reaction Rates
Reaction rate: is the speed at which a
reaction takes place.
Reaction rate can be determined by
timing how fast the reactants of a reaction
Catalyst: is a substance that speeds up the
reaction rate without chem