Chapter 8 Abuse and Addiction to Central Nervous System Stimulants
1. Historians now believe the medicinal properties of ephedrine were discovered by the Chinese around
A. 1,000 A.D.
B. 3,000 B.C.E.
C. 8,000 B.C.E.
D. 800 B.C.E.
2. Ephedrine's s
or as a
language through the theatre movement. Thegovernment of
Karnataka established the
(Old Portuguese for: Christian Doctrine in the Canarese
Brahman Language). The first book exclusively on Konkani
grammar, Arte da Lingoa Canarim, was printed in 1640
of Maharashtra. The name of this language suggests that its
origins lie with the
has been in danger of dying out over the years for many of the
1. The fragmentation of Konkani into
various, sometimes mutually
vaikuhc jha tu g phaa amtc, jvita rkhil tuv
Early Konkani was marked by the use of pronouns like dzo, j,
and j. These are replaced in contemporary Konkani by koa.
The conjunctions yed and ted ("when" and "then") which were
used in early Kon
circa 981 AD and the
many words in common, not found in
The Konkani O (as opposed to the
Marathi A, which is of different Prakrit
origin), is similar to that in Gujarati.
The case terminations in Konkani, lo, li,
and le, and the Gujara
speakers. Examples include dr (door) giving way to the
word bgil. Also, the phoneme "a" in the Salcette dialect was
replaced by the phoneme "o".
Other Konkani communities came into being with their own
dialects of Konkani. The Konkani Muslim communities
B. Kulkarni (former head of Department of Marathi, Nagpur
University) and Dr. Jose Pereira (former professor, Fordham
University, USA). Considering these arguments, these inscriptions
at Sravanabelegola may be considered the earliest Konkani
t j kuyir
The name Konkani in the five scripts it is written
in: Devanagari,Kannada, Latin, Malayalam, Arabic.
Main article: Konkani script
Konkani has been compelled to become a language using a
multiplicity of scripts, and not just one single script use
Ganga raje sutthale karaviyale. The first line was inscribed
language. Even the spoken dialects by the majority of Goan
Hindus has a very limited Portuguese influence. On the other
hand, the spoken dialects of the Catholics from Goa (as well as
the local languages. This caused penetration of local words into
the dialects of Konkani spoken by these
figures put the number of Konkani speakers in India as 1,760,607
making up 0.21% of India's population. Out of these, 602,606
were in Goa, 522,000 in
dialect of Marathi had a great political bearing on Goa's merger,
which was settled by a plebiscite in 1967.
The Sahitya Akademi (a prominent literary organisation in India)
recognised it as an independent language in 1975, and
subsequently Konkani (in
still retains the original form.
in Konkani. A characteristic of Middle IndoAryan dialects, Konkani still retains
the anusvara on the initial or final syllable.
Similarly visarga, is totally lost and is
assimilated with and/or . For example, in
has led to the belief that Konkani is a dialect of Marathi and
hence has no bearing on the future of Goa.
Jos Pereira, in his 1971 work Konkani A Language: A History
of the Konkani Marathi Controversy, pointed to an ess
tongue). They sometimes speak primarily in English to help their
the attackers, who abused the Konkani congregation, asking
Konkani speakers to 'go back to Goa', even though most Konkani
speakers are native to the Mangalore region of Karnataka.
written in five scripts: Devanagari, Roman, Kannada, Malayalam,
and Perso-Arabic. Because Devanagari is the official script used
to write Konkani in Goa and Maharashtra, most Konkanis
(especially Hindus) in those two states write the language in
Potaachi Bhas (language of the stomach) over Maaim
An international ad campaign by Nike for the 2007 Cricket World
Cup featured a Konkani song "Rav Patrao Rav" as the
background theme. It was based on the tune of an older song
1. . Office of the Registrar General. 67:
Manager of Publications. pp. see page.
2. Jump up^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju
(2003) The Dravidian
Languages Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-77111-0 at pp.4
3. Jump up^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju
or the Varamha
The vowels, consonants, and their arrangement are as follows:
Further information: Kannada script and Malayalam script
See also: Karnataka Konkani
Venn diagram of the ISO codes of the Konkani languages
many historians call them) knew the craft of systematised
agriculture, and inhabited most of
over Konkani can be proved in the findings of Dr. Taraporewala,
who in his book Elements of Science of Languages (Calcutta
University) ascertained that Konkani sh
Maharashtri was the official language of the Satavahana Empire
that ruled Goa and Konkan in the early centuries of the Common
Era. Under the patronage of the Satavahana Empire, Maharashtri
became the most widespread Prakrit of its time. Studying ear
pa tc mya zavi ghav.
as the pioneer of modern Konkani literature and affectionately
remembered as Shenoi Goembab.His death anniversary, 9
April, is celebrated as World Konkani Day (Vishwa Konkani Dis).
Madhav Manjunath Shanbhag, an advocate by pr
It is a collection of dialects of Marathi-Konkani languages spoken
in the Konkan region is referred to as Maharashtrian Konkani. The
sub-dialects of Konkani gradually merge from standard Marathi
into Konkani from north to south Konkan region.
For example, "I eat" and "I am eating" sound similar in Goan
Konkani, due to loss of auxiliary in colloquial speech. "Hv kht"
corresponds to "I am eating". On the other hand, in Karnataka
Konkani "hv kht" corresponds to "I eat", and "hv khtos" or
of the Thomas Stephens Konknni Kendr (TSKK), a research
institute working on issues related to the Konkani language,
located at Alto Porvorim, near Panaji in Goa
There are organisations working for Konkani but, primarily, these
were restricted to individu
1. Akademi. pp. 13. ISBN 978-81-7201664-7.
2. Jump up^ Singh, K.S. (1997). People of
India Vol. III : Scheduled Tribes. Oxford
University Press. pp. 522,
523. ISBN 978-0-19-564253-7.
3. Jump up^ Indian Anthropological Society
(1986). Journal of the
, unlike English, which is anSVO language.
Almost all the verbs, adverbs, adjectives,
and the avyayas are
either tatsama or tadbhava.
The following table illustrates this:
Verbs and their roots:
1. . pp. 540 pages.
2. Jump up^ V.J.P. Saldanha. Sahitya
Akademi. 2004. pp. 81
pages. ISBN 9788126020287.
3. Jump up^ M. Saldanha 717. J.
Thekkedath, however, quotes Jose
Pereira to the following effect: "A lay
brother of the College of St Paul around
san lop tcy vhynta dvc bhla sakumb
With the continued insistence of some Marathis that Konkani was
a dialect of Marathi and not an independent language, the matter
was finally placed before the Sahitya Akademi. Suniti Kumar
Chatterji, the president
gain a grip on English in schools.
Efforts have been made to stop this downward trend of usage of
Konkani, starting with Shenoi Goembab's efforts to
revive Konkani. There has been a renewed interest in Konkani
literature. The recogniti