Highlight your selected answers.
A hurricane is a tropical cyclonic (low-pressure centered rotating circulation) storm system that has maximum
sustained surface wind speeds of 119 km per hour (74 mph, 64 kt) or higher. [A knot (kt)
Extra-tropical (midlatitude) Cyclones
The extra-tropical cyclone (also called a midlatitude cyclone, low pressure system, or low), is a
major weather maker of middle and high latitudes. Surface winds blow counterclockwise and
inward in the Northern Hemisp
The General Circulation
This lecture deals with the planetary scale circulation of the atmosphere.the General
Circulation. The general circulation of earth describes the average wind conditions for any
location. The actual wind speed and direction can var
Kppen Climate Classification
In this lecture, we will:
discuss the history of climate classification
learn the Kppen lettering system for climate types
determine how to classify climates.
Weather vs. Climate
Weather: involves day-to
Precipitation Measurement & Radar
Rainfall and snowfall are routinely measured in terms of accumulation depth over a specified
time interval, usually hourly and every 6 hours and 24 hours. Measurements are made with
gauges or remot
Air Pressure & Winds
At ground level, we relate air pressure to 'sea level' which gives us a picture of weather patterns
at the surface. We use sea level as our zero 'base' elevation for all stations so variations in
pressure between locations is due to m
. . 12 ture
Weather Scenarlo Cloud Wmds Tem era Snow Your Thoughts
m m m
Example Scenario: . . . . .
Night time forecast, cloud cover, no H L None None 1:0 wmds Wlllwvent warm all. from g downward but
winds, no snow cover. c oud cover w1 keep temps warm.
Lab Extratropical Cyclones
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The predominant storm system of the middle and higher latitudes are extratropical cyclones. They
characterized by low-pressure centers, fronts, and variable weather conditions about those
Water Balance and Moisture Controls
Moisture (Water) Budget
Before working on this exercise, make sure that youve read the Water Budget online lecture notes and the
assigned chapter in your textbook(including the worked water balance in Table 6.1).
GPH212 - eCourse
Make sure that youve read the Google Doc on this topic before attempting the exercise. Also,
download a copy of a blank Stve diagram for the exercise.
Highlight your answers in the grey text boxes.
Plot the data from the
Adiabatic Cooling and the Mountain Problem
Type your answers in the grey text boxes and highlight them as well.
Saturation occurs more commonly when air is cooled to its dew point temperature than when air
masses mix as we saw in a previous lab. In
Climate and Air/Sea Interactions
Oceans, Ocean Circulation, & Ocean Phenomena
This lecture covers the topics of oceans, ocean currents, the Walker Circulation, El Nio / La
Nia, climate impacts of El Nio / La Nia, and forecasting of El Nio / La Nia events.
Beyond those examples in the textbook, below you will see another series of images showing a
massive storm moving through the Minnesota on November 10, 1998. This storm brought heavy
snow, damaging winds, and record breaking low pressur
Taking Weather Observations
In the photo to the left, you see a man taking weather observations at a
standard instrument shelter. The name of this white box is called a
Stevenson Screen (named after its British inventor, Thomas Stevenson
in the 1800s). It
Lab Precipitation Patterns and Doppler Radar
24.Disregarding the arrows identified in questions 22 and 23, at the other four arrow locations shown
around the mesocyclone, wind arrows are neither directly toward or away, nor perpendicular to the
Solar Radiation, Earth-Sun, Terrestrial Radiation, Energy Balance
Before we begin with Earth-Sun relationships, it is important that you understand the basics of
latitude (longitude is not particularly important for this discussion).
Lab Precipitation Patterns and Doppler Radar
Highlight your selected answers to the multiple choice questions and highlight your answers in the grey text
The basic mechanism for the formation of clouds and precipitation is the uplift and co
The Hydrologic Cycle
The hydrologic cycle shows how water circulates constantly between the atmosphere, the
surface, and subsurface. Water exists in three possible states: gas, liquid, and/or solid. The water
balance of earth is fairl
Temperature and Temperature Controls
Recall that temperature changes when there is a gain or loss of heat at a location. Heat is
transferred in many methods that we already explored.conduction, convection, advection,
radiation, latent h
Clouds, Temperature, & Air Pressure
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A cloud is a visible mass of liquid droplets or frozen crystals made of water. Air temperature changes resulting
Lab Surface Weather Maps
Highlight your selected answers. For each multiple choice question, answer options are in the format
[(answer1) (answer2) (answer3) (answer#)]. Determine the correct answer than then highlight your
Weather is th
Image 1 to Analyze for credit (draw isotherms every 10F). Temperatures use a base value of 0F,
so with a 10"F interval, every value will end in zero, e.g.,10F, 0F, 10F, 20F, 30"F, etc. NOT,
15F, 25F, etc. Be sure to label your lines with values and
Radiation and Energy Transfer
Insolation & Solar Transmission Through the Atmosphere
The sun is the primary energy source for the Earths systemsdriving the atmospheric and
oceanic circulations. This energy comes to us in the form of electromagnetic
Earth-Sun Relationships and Seasons
For multiple choice questions, highlight your selected answer. For open answers, type in
your response into the grey rectangular form fields and thenhighlight your answer. Make
sure that youve read and understood
Temperature and Pressure Controls
Highlight your answers in the text boxes.Make sure that youve read and understood the online
lecture notes Temperature and Temperature Controls before attempting this lab.
Complete the follo
Water and Heat Storage at Earths Surface
Heat Storage in Land and Water
Waters high specific heat compared to other Earth materials is one of the principal reasons why
the ocean and large lakes impact weather and climate quite differently than do l
GPH 212 Introduction to Meteorology I
How to read weather maps
On surface maps you will often see station weather plots. Since
meteorologists must convey a lot of information without using a
lot of words, plots are used to describe the weather at a statio
Atmospheric Moisture Version B
Relative Humidity & Dew Point Temperature
Please highlight your answers in the text boxes.
Table 1 below shows the saturation vapor pressure with various temperatures.
T em p . ( C )
As you know from lecture, many factors can influence the daily temperature at a location. We
discussed the effects of day vs. night, the impact of cloud cover, atmospheric moisture content, wind
or no wind, and surfa
Scientific notation provides a convenient way of depicting very large or very small
numbers. The notation xn means multiply the number x together n times. The number n
is known as the exponent. For example:
82 = 8 x 8 = 64
103 = 10 x 1