Polar Covalent Bonds, Hydrogen Bonds, and Van der Waals Interactions
! Polar covalent bonds result when one atom in a covalent bond is more electronegative
than the other.
! Hydrogen bonds form from interactions between a partially positive hydrogen in on
Water: Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances
! Nonpolar substances are hydrophobic because they have no charges and cant interact and
hydrogen-bond with water molecules.
! Polar and ionic molecules are hydrophilic because they do have charges (or slight
Water: Adhesion, Cohesion, and a Solid That Floats
! The polarity of water results in several properties that are fundamental to life. These
properties include adhesion, cohesion, waters high specific heat, and the ability of ice to
The polarity of
Water: Hydrogen Bonding, Solubility, and Specific Heat
! Water is a polar molecule that can act as a solvent through the formation of hydration
! The solubility of a substance refers to its ability to dissolve other substances.
! Water molecules a
Ionic and Covalent Bonds
! Electrostatics describes the tendency for positive and negative charges to attract.
! Ionic and covalent bonds are two common types of bonds that form between atoms.
! An ionic bond forms from the attraction of oppositely charge
The Nature of Science: The Story of Darwin
The scientific method is a systematic approach to answering a research question. The steps include:
1. making observations
2. forming a hypothesis
3. designing an experiment
4. gathering data
5. drawing a conclu
Early Scientific Thought
The western worlds scientific views have changed significantly through the centuries:
2000200 B.C.Early science
A.D. 2001200Age of theology
13th CenturyThomas Aquinas
16th CenturyFrancis Bacon