THINKING ABOUT PEACE (Thomas Gregor) Why do we know so little about peace? 1. Peace is hard to define and hard to find. 2. Peace is an assumed condition of human relationships and therefore needs no special attention. 3. Peace is less exciting than war. 4
The Human Potential for Peace Notes summarizing Douglas Frys book The Human Potential for Peace: An Anthropological Challenge to Assumptions about War and Violence (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). Anthropology provides special information and in
"The Culture of Conflict: Field Reality and Theory" - Carolyn Nordstrom and JoAnn Martin, eds., The Paths to Domination, Resistance, and Terror, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. INCREASED VIOLENCE AND ETHICS OF PORTRAYING IT "The widespread s
Robert D. Kaplan, 1994 (February), "The Coming Anarchy," Atlantic Monthly 273(2):44-76. Main Message "The coming anarchy: nations break up under the tidal flow of refugees from environmental and social disaster. As borders crumble, another type of boundar
Samuel P. Huntington, 1993 (Summer), "The Clash of Civilizations?," Foreign Affairs 72(3):22-49.
INTRODUCTION Harvard political scientist Huntington has developed a grand overview of war in recent history with projections for its future which pivot on con
THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF WAR: AN OVERVIEW I. Introduction A. Compared to other fields, not focused on nation-state system (state evolved around 5,000 yrs ago, nation-state system established about 350 yrs ago, many countries became independent of colonials aft
"The Anthropology of Conflict," Jeffrey A. Sluka, in The Paths of Domination, Resistance and Terror, Carolyn Nordstrom and JoAnn Martin, eds., Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY OF VIOLENCE ON INCREASE (pp. 18-19) The fa
"The Anthropology and Ethnography of Violence and Sociopolitical Conflict," Antonius C.G.M. Robben and Carolyn Nordstrom, 1995, in Fieldwork Under Fire: Contemporary Studies of Violence and Survival, C. Nordstrom and A.C.G.M. Robben eds., Berkeley, CA: Un
Joseba Zulaika,"The Anthropologist as Terrorist" [Basque], in Fieldwork Under Fire: Contemporary Studies of Violence and Survival, Carolyn Nordstrom and Antonius C.G.M. Robben, eds., Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 205-222. Professor Jos
David C. Rapoport, 1999, "Terrorism," Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, San Diego, CA: Academic Press 3:497-510.
The phenomenon of terrorism may be quite ancient, but the concept is modern (p. 498). Examples of ancient terrorists include the A
"Introduction: State Terror and Anthropology," Jeffrey A. Sluka, in Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror, J.A. Sluka, ed., Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Sluka sets out to describe and explain the widespread and growing probl
Jeffrey A. Sluka, 1995, "Reflections on Managing Danger in Fieldwork: Dangerous Anthropology in Belfast," in Fieldwork Under Fire: Contemporary Studies of Violence and Survival, Carolyn Nordstrom and Antonius C.G.M. Robben eds., Berkeley, CA: University o
From Beatriz Manz, 1995, "Reflections on an Antropologia Comprometida: Conversations with Ricardo Falla," in Fieldwork Under Fire: Contemporary Studies of Violence and Survival, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 260-274.
Dennen, J.M.G. van, 1990. "Primitive War and the Ethnological Inventory Project," in Sociobiology and Conflict, J. van der Dennen and V. Falger, eds., pp. 247-272. J.M.G. van der Dennen (1990) of the University of Groningen in The Netherlands has develope
Fabbro, D., 1978. "Peaceful Societies: An Introduction," Journal of Peace Research XV(1):67-83. Article is the first (and so far only) in the Journal of Peace Research to directly address the question of peaceful societies (see Wiberg 1981). Most anthropo
NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE CONCEPTS OF PEACE IN PEACE STUDIES
Definition of peace - peace is the absence of war + peace is the presence of human rights including economic and social justice, equality, and freedom, social cooperation and harmony, in addition to
MAIN FACTORS IN GENOCIDE (Staub 1996) Factors which contribute to the development of genocide: 1. Difficult life conditions and basic needs 2. Group characteristics and the evolution of conflict a. Devaluation and ideology of antagonism b. Authority, obed
LEADING SCHOLARS IN ANTHROPOLOGY OF WAR AND PEACE Historical Franz Boas 1858-1942 (WWI, WWII, pacifism) Bronislaw Malinowski 1884-1942 (war in general, WWII) Margaret Mead 1901-1978 (war in general, applied anthropology during WWII) Ashley Montagu (aggres
HISTORIC STATEMENTS AND TRENDS Benedict (1939) Benedict points to the fundamental double-standard regarding homicide - both murder and war are homicide, but murder is penalized even by death, while homicide in war is glorified. War is homicide that is rew
GENERALIZATIONS ABOUT THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY OF WAR AND PEACE
WAR 1. Anthropologists have concentrated on warfare in prehistoric and "primitive" societies, that is, in societies which are pre-state (prior to civilization) and non-state (bands, tribes,
Elller, Jack David, 1999, From Culture to Ethnicity to Conflict: An Anthropological Perspective on International Ethnic Conflict, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
ORGANIZATION The introduction and first two chapters of this book develop the br
FIELDWORK IN HIGH-INTENSITY CONFLICT ZONES: PRAXIS, ETHICS, AND HUMAN RIGHTS Leslie E. Sponsel
Introduction Actually, the only high conflict zones I have ever witnessed are faculty meetings, in recent months cyberspace, and the AAA convention this year! B
Starkey, Armstrong, 1998, European and Native American Warfare, 1675-1815, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
INTRODUCTION Military historian Armstrong Starkey offers to first book-length survey on European and Native American Warfare during the 17
DEMONIC MALES: APES AND THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN VIOLENCE (Wrangham and Peterson) INTRODUCTION Violence ubiquitous All to frequently we are disturbed and concerned with multitude of cases of various forms of violence reported in the news media. Often it seems
DEFINITION OF PEACE 1. Generally dictionary definitions variously characterize peace as a normal condition of tranquility, harmony, order, freedom and justice in society without internal or external warfare. 2. True security rests on a supportive and sust
B.D. Bonta, 1996. "Conflict Resolution Among Peaceful Societies: The Culture of Peacefulness," Journal of Peace Research 33(4):403-420. Bonta's basic argument is that nonviolent and peaceful societies (hereafter referred to as simply peaceful in his terms
BASIC WORKING DEFINITIONS*
AGGRESSION "Aggression is defined as an action by one person or group designed to harm another person or group." HARM "Harm is defined to include emotional harm such as embarrassment or humiliation, social harm such as isolation
John Keegan, 1993, A History of Warfare, New York, NY: Vintage.
CULTURE Violence and war are usually more an expression of culture than politics or result of circumstances. (The American War of Independence from England was the first truly political war).
Keith F. Otterbein, 1999 (Dec), "A History of Research on Warfare in Anthropology, " American Anthropologist 101(4):794-805. Otterbein is a long-time and major student of the anthropology of war, especially cross-cultural studies, but also a monograph on