GG303 Lab 7
10/6/10
1
DOWN PLUNGE CROSS SECTIONS
I
Main Topics
A Cylindrical folds
B Downplunge cross-section views
C Apparent dip
II Cylindrical folds
A Surface of a cylindrical fold is parallel to a line called the fold axis.
B Cylindrical folds maintai
11/15/11
24. Faults (I)
I Main Topics
A Why are faults important?
B Fault geometry
C Fault kinemaEcs
D Fault classicaEon
E IntroducEon to fault mechanics
11/15/11
GG303
1
24. Faults (I)
Collapsed Cypre
11/14/11
23. Disloca/ons
I Main Topics
A Disloca/ons and other defects in solids
B Signicance of disloca/ons
C Planar disloca/ons
D Displacement and stress elds for a screw
disloca/on (mode III)
11/14/11
G
11/6/11
22. Stresses Around a Hole (II)
I Main Topics
A General solu=on for a plane strain case
B Boundary condi=ons
C Solu=on that honors boundary condi=ons
D Signicance of solu=on
E Superposi=on
F
11/6/11
21. Stresses Around a Hole (I)
I Main Topics
A Introduc<on to stress elds and stress
concentra<ons
B Stresses in a polar (cylindrical) reference frame
C Equa<ons of equilibrium
D Solu<on of
10/30/11
20. Rheology & Linear Elas7city
I Main Topics
A Rheology: Macroscopic deforma7on behavior
B Linear elas7city for homogeneous isotropic
materials
10/30/11
GG303
1
20. Rheology & Linear Elas7city
Visc
10/25/11
19. Principal Stresses
I Main Topics
A Cauchys formula
B Principal stresses (eigenvectors and eigenvalues)
C Example
10/25/11
GG303
1
19. Principal Stresses
hKp:/hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/images.html
10/23/11
18. Tensor Transforma2on of Stresses
I Main Topics
A Objec2ve
B Approach
C Deriva2on
D Example
10/23/11
GG303
1
17. Mohr Circle for Trac2ons
From King et al., 1994
(Fig. 11)
Coulomb stress cha
10/16/11
17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons
I Main Topics
A Stresses vs. trac4ons
B Mohr circle for trac4ons
C Example
10/16/11
GG303
1
17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons
From King et al., 1994
(Fig. 11)
Coulomb
11/23/11
27. Folds (I)
I Main Topics
A What is a fold?
B Curvature of a plane curve
C Curvature of a surface
11/23/11
GG303
1
27. Folds (I)
hEp:/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Caledonian_orogeny_fo
GG303 Lab 5
9/28/10
1
SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS
I
Main Topics
A What is a spherical projection?
B Spherical projection of a line
C Spherical projection of a plane
D Determination of fold axes
E Free spherical projection program for the MacIntosh:
"Stereonet"
Geology and Geophysics 303: Structural Geology
Fall Semester, 2010, 3.0 Units
Lectures: MW 10:30-11:20
Lab: W 1:30-4:20
http:/www.soest.hawaii.edu/martel/Stevem.html
Instructor: Steve Martel, POST 805, 956-7797, smartel@hawaii.edu
Office Hours: After clas
12/5/11
15. OPENINGMODE FRACTURES
(JOINTS AND DIKES)
I Main Topics
A Why are opening mode fractures important?
B Geometry
C KinemaOcs
D Mechanics
E Key takeaway points
12/5/11
GG303
1
15. OPENINGMODE FRA
11/23/11
14. Folds
I Main Topics
A Local geometry of a plane curve (cylindrical fold)
B Local geometry of a curved surface (3D fold)
C Numerical evaluaFon of curvature (geometry)
D KinemaFcs of folding
E F
10/19/11
9. EIGENVECTORS, EIGENVALUES, AND FINITE STRAIN
I Main Topics
A Mo?va?on
B Inverse [A]1 of a real matrix A
C Determinant |A| of a real matrix A
D Eigenvectors and eigenvalues
(Principal direc?
9/8/11
3. MAPS AND CROSS SECTIONS
I Main Topics
A Three point problems
B Map interpretaCon and cross secCons
9/8/11
GG303
1
3. MAPS AND CROSS SECTIONS
II Three point problems
A Three noncolinear
point
8/25/11
1. ORIENTATIONS OF LINES AND PLANES IN SPACE
I Main Topics
A Deni?ons of points, lines, and planes
B Geologic methods for describing lines and
planes
C ALtude symbols for geologic maps
D Reference fr
12/2/11
28. Folds (II)
I Main Topic: Mechanics of folds above intrusions
A Background
B G.K. Gilberts idealizaGon
C SuperposiGon
D Displacements around an openingmode crack (sill)
E Dimensional analysis of gov
10/16/11
16. STRESS AT A POINT
I Main Topics
A Stress vector (trac=on) on a plane
B Stress at a point
C Principal stresses
D Transforma=on of principal stresses to trac=ons in
2D
10/16/11
GG303
1
16
10/12/11
15. FINITE STRAIN & INFINITESIMAL STRAIN
(AT A POINT)
I Main Topics
A The nite strain tensor [E]
B DeformaIon paths for nite strain
C Innitesimal strain and the innitesimal strain
tensor
10/12/11
10/11/11
14. HOMOGENEOUS FINITE STRAIN:
DISPLACEMENT & DEFORMATION GRADIENTS
I Main Topics
A PosiAon, displacement, and dierences in posiAon
of two points
B Chain rule for a funcAon of mulAple variables
C Homo
GG303 Lab 14
11/23/11
1
FOLDS
Exercise 1: Graphical solution for curvature (10 points total )
Find the curvature graphically at the crest of the curve on the next page using
the three marked points and the procedure described in the notes for the lab
lect
GG303 Lab 13
11/17/11
1
FAULT SLIP
Lab 13
Problem 1 ( 32 pts total)
In the attached map for problem 1, a dike shows a left-lateral separation of 100m. The
mapped surface has been eroded perfectly flat. Consider the four cases below:
Case 1 The marker unit
GG303 Lab 12
11/15/11
1
DEFORMATION AROUND A HOLE
The objective of this lab is to develop insight into the stress and strain fields around a hole, and
to see how those fields are related.
Part 1 (Strain in Lycra sheet)
a
Exploration
Stretch the Lycra shee
GG303 Lab 10
10/28/11
1
Lab 10: Stress and strain
Exercise 1: Stress analysis
Consider a hypothetical state of stress near the surface of the Earth in a volcanically active
region. We wish to find the o
GG303 Lab 5
9/12/11
Lab 5
1
Spherical Projections
U se a separate piece of paper for each exercise, and i nclude printouts of your
M atlab work . 1 03 pts for Ex. 1 - 4; 124 p oints f or Ex. 1 - 5 .
Exercise 1: Plots of lines ( 30 points total)
Plot and n
GG303 Lab 4
9/14/11
1
INTERSECTIONS OF PLANES
Lab 4
Read each exercise completely before you start it so that you understand the problem-solving
approach you are asked to execute. This will help keep the big picture clear.
Exercise 1: Apparent dip ( 57 po
GG303 Lab 3
9/6/11
1
Three Point Problems and Map Interpretation
Exercise 1 (29 points total )
Three points with the following coordinates lie on a planar bed:
A: 100m N, 400m E, 400m elev;
B: 0m N, 0m E, 200m elev;
C: 300m N, 0m E, 500m elev. You are ask
GG303 Lab 2
8/29/11
1
LAB 02: ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS OF LINES AND PLANES
The purpose of this lab is to develop your ability to visualize and describe
lines and planes in three dimensions, by conceptual, algebraic, and graphical
means.
In the exercises b