Basic Food Toxicology
Poison or poisonous substance has connotations of causing death or being used in homicide or
Most authorities generally consider a poison to be an exceptionally toxic substance.
Toxicologists prefer the overarching ter
Pathogens must survive passage through the extremely acidic environment of the stomach and
the presence of digestive enzymes.
Pathogens must overcome the immune defenses of the host before, during, and after
Food Additives and Adulterants
FDA is responsible for regulating and monitoring food additives.
Compared with a laypersons definition, the legal definition of a food additive is far-reaching
Even if a substance is approved for use as a food addi
Pollutants often find their way into the human food chain.
Most of the concerns with chemical residues in food from pollution are chronic exposures.
Sometimes the hazards can be acute or subchronic.
Industrial pollutants originate
Ground or comminuted meat, particularly hamburger, should be cooked at higher temperatures.
Food Code specifies an internal temperature of 68C (155F) or higher for 15 seconds or
USDA recommends cooking ground beef, veal, lamb, a
Historical Aspects of FS
Early Human History of Food Safety
The Canning Industry
The Milk and Dairy Industry
The Meat Packing Industry
Shellfish Sanitation and Environmental Contamination
Regulating Chemicals in the Food Supply
Early Human History
Public health officials in America and Europe concerned about numerous outbreaks of disease
from eating raw oysters, clams, and mussels in late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Large outbreak of typhoid fever swept across the
Sanitize means to adequately treat food contact surfaces by a process that is effective in
destroying vegetative cells of microorganisms of public health significance, and in substantially
reducing numbers of other undesirable microorga
Etiology of listeriosisa disease that rightfully frightens pregnant women and
Results in serious outcomes such as abortion, stillbirth, premature birth, and neonatal
infections, along with other seriou
Pests may include any domesticated and wild animals.
Arthropods of greatest public health significance in food facilities are the insects commonly
known as cockroaches, flies, and ants.
Rodents cause the greatest problems among the vertebrate