1* The deepening public debt was of grave concern:
1* The colonial wars with England, 1778-1783.
2* French participation in the American Revolution.
3* Maintaining a large military and naval establishment.
4* The extravagant cost of maintainin
Discontent with the Old Regime
1* The rising expectations towards government created by the
Enlightenment, led to criticism directed toward government
inefficiency and corruption, and the privileged classes.
2* The social stratification model failed to co
Dutch Wars and Foreign Policy
The Peace of Westphalia (1648) ended eighty years of
war between Spain and the Netherlands and resulted in
independence for the Dutch Republic and continued
Hapsburg rule of the Spanish Netherlands.
After being freed from Spa
Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe was much less advanced
economically, than Western Europe.
After the Peace of Westphalia, Europe in this region
would begin to slowly consolidate its powers into regional
The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)
Protestant Bohemian revolt over religious freedom
led to war in Germany.
The Bohemian phase (1618-1625) was
characterized by civil war in Bohemia between the
Catholic League and the Protestant Union.
The Bohemians fough
The condition of the church (ca. 1400-1517)
The declining prestige of the church
The Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism
damaged the church's prestige.
Secular humanists satirized and denounced moral
corruption within the church.
Signs of disor
Martin Luther and the birth of Protestantism
Luther's early years
Luther was a German monk and professor of
religion whose search for salvation led him to the
letters of St. Paul.
He concluded that faith was central to Christianity
and the only means o
Calvin believed that God selects certain people to
do his work and that he was selected to reform the
Under John Calvin, Geneva became "a city that was
a church" (a theocracy), in which the state was
subordinate to the church.
Discovery, reconnaissance, and expansion (1450-1650)
The "Age of Discovery" from 1450 to 1650 ushered in a
new age of world history based on European mastery of
ocean travel, increased migration, and economic, political,
and cultural expansion.
Germany and the Protestant Reformation
The Holy Roman Empire in the fourteenth and fifteenth
The Golden Bull of 1356 gave each of the seven
electors virtual sovereignty.
Localism and chronic disorder allowed the nobility to
strengthen their t
Politics, religion, and war
The Spanish French wars ended in 1559 with a Spanish
victory, leading to a variety of European wars centering on
religious and national issues.
These wars used bigger armies and gunpowder,
and led to the need for administrat