What is Energy? (Section 6.1)
An ability to do work
Pushing or pulling of something against an opposing force
Electrical energy battery pushing electrons through a wire
Mechanical energy motor moving parts in a mach
Electronic Structure Part 1
Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Spectra; Energy Levels in Atoms
Rutherfords Planetary Model
Nucleus determines the mass of the atom
Nucleus determines the number of electrons needed for neutrality
Nuclei are no
Periodic Relationships among the Elements
Development of the Periodic Table Section (Section 8.2)
Read and take notes on some of the minor and major players.
Packet # 9
Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts
Lewis Dot Symbols (Section 9.1)
Lewis dot symbols are used to show the valence electrons in an atom
For the representative elements, the group number is equal to the number of valence electrons
Chemical Bonding Part II
Molecular Geometry (Section 10.1)
The 3-D arrangement of atoms in space
This is important because shape is one factor that determines a substances physical and chemical
In order to figure molecular shap
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Liquids and Solids (Section 11.1) Previously Discussed
Intermolecular Forces (Section 11.2) I will give you an organizer!
Properties of Liquids (Section 11.3) I will give you an organizer!
Solids (Section 11.4)
Previously, we have discussed the physical properties of matter: solids, liquids & gases
However, we have yet to discuss the physical properties of mixtures.
3 Types of Mixtures (We start with Section 12.8)
3 Important questions
1. Will a reaction occur? Thermodynamics will answer this
2. If so, how fast? Chemical kinetics will answer this
3. If so, how far? Equilibrium will answer this
We will answer the question How fast? in
Equilibrium (Section 14.1)
State in which the rate of a forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction
The emphasis is on Rate!
When equilibrium is achieved, the concentrations of the products and the reactants r
Acids & Bases
Ion product constant of water (Section 15.1 15.2)
Let us now look at liquids, specifically, water.
We will use this knowledge to better understand Acid-Base Equilibria
Water is able to undergo self-ionization.
H2O (l) + H2O (l)
Acid-Base Equilibria New Applications!
Expressing Ka & Kb as pKa & pKb (Section 15.7 & Sections 16.1 16.2)
Why would we do such a thing?
The larger the pKa, the weaker the acid.
The larger the pKb, the weaker the base.
Does the reaction occur at all?
Thermodynamics is concerned with energy changes and the flow of energy from one substance to another.
By understanding how energy changes, we can understand why some things happen and why others
Involves oxidation-reduction reactions (redox)
Recall that redox reactions involve a transfer of electrons
Since electron are moving from one atom to another, electricity can be generated
Our new focus is electrical energy, c
Packet # 22
Transition Metal Chemistry and Coordination Compounds
Properties of the Transition Metals (Section 22.1)
Typically have incompletely filled d subshells
Tend to form ions with incompletely filled d subshells
Exceptions Group 2B
o Sometimes not
2013 2014 School Year
Advanced Placement Chemistry
Location: Room 122
Time: The class meets daily for 42 minutes on a rotating 6 day cycle. Lab classes meet for 84 minutes 2
times during each cycle.
Office Hours: The best thing to
Read Section 5.1 and familiarize yourself with the gases on page 165. You need not memorize
them but make sure you read the section and Table 5.1.
Properties of gases
1. Gases fill the containers they occupy; therefore the volume of a ga
Reactions in Aqueous Solution
Properties of Solutions (Section 4.1)
Homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances.
The 2 substances are called the solute and the solvent.
The solute (the one of lesser amount) gets dissolved.
ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND IONS
(a) Alpha () particles are helium ions with a charge of +2. (b) Beta () particles are electrons emitted
during the decay of certain radioactive substances. (c) Gamma () rays are high-energy radiation. (d) X-rays
ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND IONS
First, convert 1 cm to picometers.
1 1010 pm
? He atoms (1 1010 pm)
1 He atom
1 10 pm
Note that you are given information to set up the unit factor relating meters and miles
MASS RELATIONSHIPS IN
(34.968 amu)(0.7553) (36.956 amu)(0.2447) 35.45 amu
Strategy: Each isotope contributes to the average atomic mass based on its relative abundance. Multiplying
the mass of an isotope by its fractio
ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS IN
The system is the specific part of the universe that is of interest to us. The surroundings are the rest of the
universe outside the system. An open system can exchange mass and energy, usually in t
THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
A wave can be thought of as a vibrating disturbance by which energy is transmitted. The distance between
identical points on successive waves is called the wavelength (. The frequency ( of the wave is the
THE PERIODIC TABLE
Mendeleevs periodic table was a great improvement over previous efforts for two reasons. First, it grouped
the elements together more accurately, according to their properties. Equally important, it made possible the
CHEMICAL BONDING I
A Lewis dot symbol consists of the symbol of an element and one dot for each valence electron in an atom of
the element. Lewis dot symbols mainly apply to representative elements.
Lithium (Group 1A, 1 valence electron,
CHEMICAL BONDING II
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule. A molecules geometry
affects its physical and chemical properties, such as melting point, boiling point, density, and the types of
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Carbon can form more compounds than most other elements because carbon atoms are able not only to form
single, double, and triple carbon-carbon bonds, but also to link up with each other in chains and ring
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES AND
LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS
(a) Dipole-dipole interactions are attractive forces between polar molecules, that is, between molecules that
possess dipole moments. HCl molecules will have dipole-dipole interactions. (b) If w