2013 2014 School Year
Advanced Placement Chemistry
Location: Room 122
Time: The class meets daily for 42 minutes on a rotating 6 day cycle. Lab classes meet for 84 minutes 2
times during each cycle.
Office Hours: The best thing to
Packet # 22
Transition Metal Chemistry and Coordination Compounds
Properties of the Transition Metals (Section 22.1)
Typically have incompletely filled d subshells
Tend to form ions with incompletely filled d subshells
Exceptions Group 2B
o Sometimes not
Involves oxidation-reduction reactions (redox)
Recall that redox reactions involve a transfer of electrons
Since electron are moving from one atom to another, electricity can be generated
Our new focus is electrical energy, c
Does the reaction occur at all?
Thermodynamics is concerned with energy changes and the flow of energy from one substance to another.
By understanding how energy changes, we can understand why some things happen and why others
Acid-Base Equilibria New Applications!
Expressing Ka & Kb as pKa & pKb (Section 15.7 & Sections 16.1 16.2)
Why would we do such a thing?
The larger the pKa, the weaker the acid.
The larger the pKb, the weaker the base.
Acids & Bases
Ion product constant of water (Section 15.1 15.2)
Let us now look at liquids, specifically, water.
We will use this knowledge to better understand Acid-Base Equilibria
Water is able to undergo self-ionization.
H2O (l) + H2O (l)
Equilibrium (Section 14.1)
State in which the rate of a forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction
The emphasis is on Rate!
When equilibrium is achieved, the concentrations of the products and the reactants r
3 Important questions
1. Will a reaction occur? Thermodynamics will answer this
2. If so, how fast? Chemical kinetics will answer this
3. If so, how far? Equilibrium will answer this
We will answer the question How fast? in
Previously, we have discussed the physical properties of matter: solids, liquids & gases
However, we have yet to discuss the physical properties of mixtures.
3 Types of Mixtures (We start with Section 12.8)
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Liquids and Solids (Section 11.1) Previously Discussed
Intermolecular Forces (Section 11.2) I will give you an organizer!
Properties of Liquids (Section 11.3) I will give you an organizer!
Solids (Section 11.4)
Chemical Bonding Part II
Molecular Geometry (Section 10.1)
The 3-D arrangement of atoms in space
This is important because shape is one factor that determines a substances physical and chemical
In order to figure molecular shap
Packet # 9
Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts
Lewis Dot Symbols (Section 9.1)
Lewis dot symbols are used to show the valence electrons in an atom
For the representative elements, the group number is equal to the number of valence electrons
Periodic Relationships among the Elements
Development of the Periodic Table Section (Section 8.2)
Read and take notes on some of the minor and major players.
Electronic Structure Part 1
Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Spectra; Energy Levels in Atoms
Rutherfords Planetary Model
Nucleus determines the mass of the atom
Nucleus determines the number of electrons needed for neutrality
Nuclei are no
What is Energy? (Section 6.1)
An ability to do work
Pushing or pulling of something against an opposing force
Electrical energy battery pushing electrons through a wire
Mechanical energy motor moving parts in a mach
Read Section 5.1 and familiarize yourself with the gases on page 165. You need not memorize
them but make sure you read the section and Table 5.1.
Properties of gases
1. Gases fill the containers they occupy; therefore the volume of a ga
Reactions in Aqueous Solution
Properties of Solutions (Section 4.1)
Homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances.
The 2 substances are called the solute and the solvent.
The solute (the one of lesser amount) gets dissolved.
Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions
How is mass measured?
Can a single atom be weighed?
How is this done experimentally?
Assign a value to the mass of one atom of a given element and use it as a standard for comparison
Understanding Atoms, Molecules and Ions
A Historical Perspective
430 B.C. Democritus (Greek)
Expresses belief that matter consists of small indivisible particles
Called them atomos (indivisible)
Questions to Ponder
Why Study Chemistry?
How Does Studying Chemistry Compare & Contrast to Other Fields?
The Scientific Method
-a systematic approach to research
Carefully define a problem.
Design an experiment to test the problem.
Run the exper
ACIDS AND BASES
A Brnsted acid is a proton donor, and a Brnsted base is a proton acceptor. Arrhenius acids are substances
that ionize in water to produce H ions and Arrhenius bases are substances that ionize in water to produce
Equilibrium is a state in which no observable changes occur with time. There are two types of equilibria:
physical and chemical. An example of a physical dynamic equilibrium is the vaporization and condensation
The rate of a reaction measures how fast a reactant is consumed or how fast a product is formed. The rate is
expressed as a ratio of the change in concentration to elapsed time.
The units of reaction rate are molarit
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS
When one substance (the solute) dissolves in another (the solvent), particles of the solute disperse throughout
the solvent. The solute particles occupy positions that are normally taken by solvent molecule
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES AND
LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS
(a) Dipole-dipole interactions are attractive forces between polar molecules, that is, between molecules that
possess dipole moments. HCl molecules will have dipole-dipole interactions. (b) If w
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Carbon can form more compounds than most other elements because carbon atoms are able not only to form
single, double, and triple carbon-carbon bonds, but also to link up with each other in chains and ring
CHEMICAL BONDING II
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule. A molecules geometry
affects its physical and chemical properties, such as melting point, boiling point, density, and the types of