Diverticula are small mucosal herniations protruding through the intestinal layers and the smooth
muscle along the natural openings created by the vasa recta or nutrient vessels in the wall of the
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) happens when your stomach contents come back up into your
Stomach acid that touches the lining of your esophagus can cause heartburn, also called a
Sepsis is an illness in which the body has a severe response to bacteria or other germs.
This response may be called systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).
The symptoms of sepsis are not caused by the
Pathophysiology: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
UTI is an infection in the urinary tract.
Infections are caused by microbesorganisms too small to be seen without a microscopeincluding
fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Bacteria are the mos
Pathophysiology: Breast Cancer
Definition: Malignant growth of tumors in the breast tissue. May be noninvasive as in ductal or
lobular carcinoma insitu or invasive as with infiltrating ductal or lobular carcinoma.
Etiology: Unknown, may be ass
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease that causes inflammation and sores, called ulcers, in the lining
of the rectum and colon. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease.
The cause of
Pathophysiology: Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a persons ability to move and maintain
balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is caused by
Pathophysiology: Diabetic Neuropathy
Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes
can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Some people with nerve damage
have no symptoms. Other
Pathophysiology: Obstructive Sleep Apnea
With obstructive sleep apnea your breathing pauses while you are asleep because your airway
has become narrowed or partly blocked.
When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more r
Pathophysiology: Ventricular tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a rapid heartbeat that starts in the lower chambers of the heart. It
is indicated in a pulse rate of more than 100 beats per minute, with at least three irregular
Pathophysiology: Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke)
A stroke occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a portion of the brain is blocked. Without
oxygen, brain cells start to die after a few minutes. Sudden bleeding in the brain also can cause
Pathophysiology: Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary artery disease (CAD) also coronary heart disease (CHD), is the most common type of
heart disease. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become
hardened and narrowed. T
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: ATRIAL FIBRILLATION
Atrial fibrillation or AF, is the most common type of arrhythmia. An arrhythmia is a problem with
the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or
with an irr
Hypertension, commonly known as High blood pressure is a common disease in which blood flows
through blood vessels (arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Blood pressure is the force of
blood pushing against the walls of
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
A heart attack occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle suddenly
becomes blocked. If blood flow isn't restored quickly, the section of heart muscle begins
Constipation is a condition in which someone have fewer than three bowel movements in a
week or a bowel movements with stools that are hard, dry, and small, making them painful or
difficult to pass.
Pathophysiology: Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus is a disease in which the body does not control the amount of glucose (a type
of sugar) in the blood and the kidneys make a large amount of urine. This disease occurs when
the body d
Angina is chest pain or discomfort that occurs if an area of your heart muscle doesn't get enough
Angina may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. The pain also can occur in your
Pathophysiology: Congestive Heart Failure
What is congestive Heart Failure?
Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped or is about to stop worki
Hypomagnesemia is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than
Common causes of low magnesium include:
Burns that affect a large area of the body
To understand high blood cholesterol. it helps to learn about cholesterol. Cholesterol is a waxy,
fat-like substance thats found in all cells of the body. Two kinds of lipoproteins carry cholesterol
Pathophysiology: Bacterial gastroenteritis
Bacterial gastroenteritis is present when bacteria cause an infection of the stomach and
Bacterial gastroenteritis can affect 1 person or a group of people who all ate the same fo
Anemia is a condition in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells.
Anemia also can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is
an iron-rich protein that
Diarrhea is frequent, loose, and watery bowel movements. Bowel movements, also called
stools, are body wastes passed through the rectum and anus. Stools contain what is left after
your digestive system absorbs nutrien
Pathophysiology: Cor Pulmonale
Cor pulmonale is a condition that causes the right side of the heart to fail. Long-term high blood
pressure in the arteries of the lung and right ventricle of the heart can lead to cor pulmonale.
Pathophysiology: Metabolic Encephalopathy
Metabolic encephalopathies comprise a series of neurological disorders not caused by primary
structural abnormalities; rather, they result from systemic illness, such as diabetes, liver disease,
Syncope is defined as a transient, self-limited loss of consciousness with an inability to maintain postural
tone that is followed by spontaneous recovery. This definition excludes seizures, coma, shock, or other
The formation of crystal aggregates in the urinary tract results in kidney stones, the clinical condition
referred to as nephrolithiasis. Kidney stones might produce no symptoms or may be associated with one
Pathophysiology: Renal Colic
Renal colic is triggered by the buildup of crystals, or stones, in the kidneys. When these stones interfere
with the flow of urine, they can cause the kidneys to swell, producing waves of pain (colic). Kidney
Pathophysiology: Alcohol Use Disorder
Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep
drinking. You may also need more and more alcohol to feel drunk. Stopping suddenly may cause