Potential Energy
Conservative and Dissipative Forces
Before moving on to the second type of energy, let us look at conservative and dissipative forces. Recall that we defined the work to be W = F dx
x1 x2
What would happen if we then traversed a
Rockets
So far, we have only considered situations where the change in momentum is due to changes in velocity. What would happen if the mass changed instead? Or they both changed? This is the case of rocket motion. In order to determine a rocket's mo
Stress and Strain
Up to now we have been studying the dynamics of rigid bodies, that is, idealized objects that have a definite size and shape, but one in which the particles making up the object are constrained so that the relative positions of the
Thermal Expansion
One of the main sources of stresses in an object is heat. Here we begin to study some of the properties of heat. We are all familiar with the ideas that an object is hot or cold. In order to quantify this, we introduce the notion of
Thermodynamics
Now let us turn our attention to gases. If we compress a gas while keeping its temperature constant, we find that the pressure increases as the volume decreases. The rate of increase in pressure is inversely proportional to the decreas
Torque
Lets again consider motion in a circle. When we talked about circular motion, we saw that there were rotational equivalents to position, velocity and acceleration. Is there a rotational equivalent to force? The answer to this is yes. It is cal
Linear Kinematics
Let us consider the motion of an object. For simplicity, let us take an ideal object, which does not take up any real space, or interact with the rest of the world. To begin with, let us describe its position. In order to say where
Mechanical Equilibrium
We are now ready to consider objects in equilibrium. There are two conditions to equilibrium for most objects. The first condition is stated by Newton's first law:
F = 0
The second condition of equilibrium is
= 0
Basically
Newton's Laws of Motion
Speed: Distance/Time = v Average speed Total distance divided by total time X initial might not be the real starting point o T2 might be better o Be flexible with subscript V = Delta X/ Delta T o Xf Xi/ Tf-Ti Acceleration
LAB
Harry Initial Volume: Final Volume: Final Initial = o o Sally Initial Volume: Final Volume: Final Initial = o o Bill Initial Volume: Final Volume: Final Initial = o o o Lay it out in excel Convert ML to Average Uncertainty Lay it out in
Physics 411 Tips
Solving problems o o o o o o Write the question down Known and unknown Find relevant equations Do any algebra Plug in Box answer 1n problem per page Get partial credit
Vector Kinematics
Vector: Directed as a line segment Displace
Lesson 1: The Metric System
Ask someone how tall they are and they'll probably tell you in feet and inches. This is surprising given that we are a metric country, but it is a traditional way of describing peoples' heights that has stayed with us. S
Lesson 2: Precision and Accuracy
In everyday language "precise" and "accurate" mean roughly the same thing. but not in physics. Precise - after taking a lot of measurements, you notice that they are all very close to each other. Accurate - after taki
Lesson 3: Significant Digits
Scientists take the ideas of precision and accuracy very seriously. You can actually take entire courses in University that show how to figure out the precisi n and o accuracy of measurements. Guess what? I took 'em!. y
Lesson 4: Scientific Notation
In the last section you learned how to use sig digs in your calculations. What do you do if you multiply numbers like 537 x 269 = 144 453. you are supposed to only have three sig digs, but your answer sure has more than
Lesson 5: Expressing Error in Measurements
Anytime an experiment is conducted, a certain degree of uncertainty must be expected. There are basically three reasons you might have an error in a measurement. 1. physical errors in the measuring device Ex
Lesson 6: Manipulating Equations
Manipulating equations is probably one of the most important skills to master in a high school physics course. Although it is based on familiar (and fairly simple) math concepts, Warning! Do not use any it is still a
Lesson 7: Graphing
Graphing is an essential skill for both Physics 20 and 30. You MUST be able to follow all of the rules of properly drawing a graph, and also be able to do basic interpretation of graphs. When you are presented with a chart of numbe
Lesson 8: Velocity
Two branches in physics examine the motion of objects: Kinematics: describes the motion of objects, without looking at the cause of the motion (kinematics is the first unit of Physics 20). Dynamics: relates the motion of objects
Lesson 10: Acceleration
Acceleration is a vector which measures the change in the velocity of an object. Don't forget that velocity is a vector, so it has magnitude and direction. This means acceleration could be any of the following three. 1. a ch
Lesson 11: The Other Formulas
There are several other formulas that are very useful when the acceleration is uniform. Do not use these equations if the acceleration is changing! The acceleration must be constant. These other formulas are based on c
Lesson 12: Gravity
Aristotle
From the time of Aristotle (384-322 BC) until the late 1500's, gravity was believed to act differently on different objects. This was based on Aristotle's observations of doing things like dropping a metal bar and a feat
Lesson 15: Solving Vector Problems in 2 Dimensions
We can now start to solve problems involving vectors in 2 dimensions. We will use all the ideas we've been building up as we've been studying vectors to be able to solve these questions. The majori
Lesson 16: Relative Motion
Relative motion is just a way of saying that sometimes different people will say different things about the motion of the same object. This is not because one of them is wrong, but because they are using different frames o
Lesson 17: Projectiles Launched Horizontally
The study of projectile motion brings together a lot of what you have learned in the past few seconsti. You need to know about gravity, velocity, acceleration, and vector components to be able to fully un
Lesson 18: Projectile Motion at an Angle
To do questions involving objects launched from the ground upwards at an angle (like kicking a football up into the air and watching it as it arcs in the air and comes back down), you need to add a few more st
Physics Laboratory
Tutorial Menu
Excel Tutorials
Hello, and welcome to my Microsoft Excel tutorials. I've created these pages to supplement your physics laboratory course here at Clemson University. Most of our lab courses require using Excel or so
A Guide to Using Excel in Physics Lab
Excel has the potential to be a very useful program that will save you lots of time. Excel is especially useful for making repetitious calculations on large data sets. It keeps track of your numbers, and can do t
Momentum
We have now looked at force and energy. We want to define a new quantity that helps connect the two: Momentum. Physically, momentum is a measurement of an object's tendency to continue in motion at a constant velocity. If the force and energy are
Rotational Kinematics
We have talked about how our position vectors can be represented as groups of numbers, for instance either in individual components or as the magnitude and angles associated with the vector. Then, in introducing centripetal motion, w