Angular Momentum
Finally, lets look at angular momentum. The rotational equivalent of linear momentum is called angular momentum. Just as with torque, the strength of the angular momentum also depends on the distance away from the rotational axis. So
Applications of Force
WearenowreadytolookatsomeapplicationsofNewton'slaws.There arethreetypesofforcesthatwewilldealwithinthiscourse.Thefirstisapplied forces.Theothertwoarenaturalforcesandcontactforces.
Applied Forces
Appliedforcesarethosethatarisedu
Fluid Mechanics
Let us now look at the properties inherent in a fluid. A fluid differs from a solid in that it cannot support a shear stress. In this sense, both liquids and gases can be described as fluids (in fact, under certain extreme conditions,
Gravitation
Another example of circular motion is that of the planets around the sun. Here the only force that acts on the planets is that of gravity. When Newton first published his theory of motion, he also included a theory of gravity. Newton had
Heat
We saw that when two bodies are not in thermal equilibrium and are in contact with each other, the temperatures of the objects changes until equilibrium is established. Obviously some sort of interaction takes place, and as in all interactions,
Introduction
The study of physics is the study of the world around us. As with all sciences, physics operates by making an observation of some phenomenon, creating a model which describes the phenomenon, and then predicting new observations based on
Kinetic Energy
How do work and energy relate to each other? Consider an object with mass m being acted on by a force F. Then, if the speed of the object increases from v1 to v2 as it moves from x1 to x2, we can write
2 v2 = v12 + 2a ( x2 - x1 )
solv
Potential Energy
Conservative and Dissipative Forces
Before moving on to the second type of energy, let us look at conservative and dissipative forces. Recall that we defined the work to be W = F dx
x1 x2
What would happen if we then traversed a
Rockets
So far, we have only considered situations where the change in momentum is due to changes in velocity. What would happen if the mass changed instead? Or they both changed? This is the case of rocket motion. In order to determine a rocket's mo
Stress and Strain
Up to now we have been studying the dynamics of rigid bodies, that is, idealized objects that have a definite size and shape, but one in which the particles making up the object are constrained so that the relative positions of the
Thermal Expansion
One of the main sources of stresses in an object is heat. Here we begin to study some of the properties of heat. We are all familiar with the ideas that an object is hot or cold. In order to quantify this, we introduce the notion of
Thermodynamics
Now let us turn our attention to gases. If we compress a gas while keeping its temperature constant, we find that the pressure increases as the volume decreases. The rate of increase in pressure is inversely proportional to the decreas
Torque
Lets again consider motion in a circle. When we talked about circular motion, we saw that there were rotational equivalents to position, velocity and acceleration. Is there a rotational equivalent to force? The answer to this is yes. It is cal
Linear Kinematics
Let us consider the motion of an object. For simplicity, let us take an ideal object, which does not take up any real space, or interact with the rest of the world. To begin with, let us describe its position. In order to say where
Mechanical Equilibrium
We are now ready to consider objects in equilibrium. There are two conditions to equilibrium for most objects. The first condition is stated by Newton's first law:
F = 0
The second condition of equilibrium is
= 0
Basically
Newton's Laws of Motion
Speed: Distance/Time = v Average speed Total distance divided by total time X initial might not be the real starting point o T2 might be better o Be flexible with subscript V = Delta X/ Delta T o Xf Xi/ Tf-Ti Acceleration
LAB
Harry Initial Volume: Final Volume: Final Initial = o o Sally Initial Volume: Final Volume: Final Initial = o o Bill Initial Volume: Final Volume: Final Initial = o o o Lay it out in excel Convert ML to Average Uncertainty Lay it out in
Physics 411 Tips
Solving problems o o o o o o Write the question down Known and unknown Find relevant equations Do any algebra Plug in Box answer 1n problem per page Get partial credit
Vector Kinematics
Vector: Directed as a line segment Displace
Lesson 1: The Metric System
Ask someone how tall they are and they'll probably tell you in feet and inches. This is surprising given that we are a metric country, but it is a traditional way of describing peoples' heights that has stayed with us. S
Lesson 2: Precision and Accuracy
In everyday language "precise" and "accurate" mean roughly the same thing. but not in physics. Precise - after taking a lot of measurements, you notice that they are all very close to each other. Accurate - after taki
Lesson 3: Significant Digits
Scientists take the ideas of precision and accuracy very seriously. You can actually take entire courses in University that show how to figure out the precisi n and o accuracy of measurements. Guess what? I took 'em!. y
Lesson 4: Scientific Notation
In the last section you learned how to use sig digs in your calculations. What do you do if you multiply numbers like 537 x 269 = 144 453. you are supposed to only have three sig digs, but your answer sure has more than
Lesson 5: Expressing Error in Measurements
Anytime an experiment is conducted, a certain degree of uncertainty must be expected. There are basically three reasons you might have an error in a measurement. 1. physical errors in the measuring device Ex
Lesson 6: Manipulating Equations
Manipulating equations is probably one of the most important skills to master in a high school physics course. Although it is based on familiar (and fairly simple) math concepts, Warning! Do not use any it is still a
Lesson 7: Graphing
Graphing is an essential skill for both Physics 20 and 30. You MUST be able to follow all of the rules of properly drawing a graph, and also be able to do basic interpretation of graphs. When you are presented with a chart of numbe
Lesson 8: Velocity
Two branches in physics examine the motion of objects: Kinematics: describes the motion of objects, without looking at the cause of the motion (kinematics is the first unit of Physics 20). Dynamics: relates the motion of objects
Lesson 10: Acceleration
Acceleration is a vector which measures the change in the velocity of an object. Don't forget that velocity is a vector, so it has magnitude and direction. This means acceleration could be any of the following three. 1. a ch
Lesson 11: The Other Formulas
There are several other formulas that are very useful when the acceleration is uniform. Do not use these equations if the acceleration is changing! The acceleration must be constant. These other formulas are based on c
Lesson 12: Gravity
Aristotle
From the time of Aristotle (384-322 BC) until the late 1500's, gravity was believed to act differently on different objects. This was based on Aristotle's observations of doing things like dropping a metal bar and a feat