The nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System
Main cell types
Eroglu and Barres, 2010
neuron and muscle
Neuron neuron synapses
Soma and nucleus
PSYC 413 (NEUR 413)
Drugs and the Brain
Prof. Josh Gulley
PSYC 413 (NEUR 413):
Behavioral and physiological effects
of chemicals either used
therapeutically to treat psychological
Exam 1 FORM A
PSYC 413 (NEUR 413), Spring 2011
MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each; 30 points total)
For each question, choose the best possible answer among the choices given. There is only one
best possible answer for each question.
1. Ligands th
Chapter 8 Main Points
Recent conceptions have focused on the compulsive features of drug seeking and use and
the concept of drug addiction as a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by repeated
periods of remission followed by relapses
Various models h
Chapter 7 Main Points
Glutamate and aspartate are amino acid neurotransmitters that have potent excitatory
effects on neurons throughout the brain and spinal cord
Althugh glutamate is contained within al cells due to its multiple biochemical functions,
Chapter 6 Main Points
Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl CoA in a single reaction catalyzed
by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase
o The rate of Ach synthesis is controlled by precursor availability and is also
increased by cholingergic
Chapter 5 Main Points
The major catecholamine transmitteres in the brain are DA and NE.
These substances are synthesized in several steps from the amino acid tyrosine
The first step
o The rate limiting step
o Catalyzed by the enzyme TH
o Once synthesized,
Chapter 4 Main Points
The goals of neuropsychopharmacology are to understand:
o The physiological and neurochemical mechanisms that are responsible for
o How drugs interact with brain chemistry to modify that behavior
Emphasizing the role of rece
Chapter 3 Main Points
Synapses are specialized strucutres that mediate chemical communication etween nerve
o Can be classified as axodentritic, axoaxonic, depending on which part of the
postsynaptic cell is receiving input from the presynaptic axon
Chapter 2 Main Points
The nerve cells in the nervous system, called neurons, are surrounded by a cell membrane
and filled with cytoplasm and the organelles needed for optimal functioning
The principal external features of a neuron reflect the special func
Chapter 1 Main Points
Drugs have biological effects only because they interact with receptors on target tissues
Drugs or ligands that bind and are capable of changing the shape of the receptor protein
and subsequently alter cell function are called agonis
Psych 413 Lecture 8 2/9/2012
1. Basal state
a. GDP-bound alpha subunit and the beta/gamma complex are associated.
2. Ligand (agaonist) binds
3. Conformational change
a. Promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha-subunit
4. Conformational change tri
Psych 413 Lecture 5 1/31/12
Provide a written response to the following:
o In a few sentences, describe Siegels experiment on morphine-induced
hyperthermia and how it demonstrated a role for classical conditioning in the
development of tolerance.
Psych 413 Lecture 4 1/26/12
Lipid-soluable drugs have the tendency to be reabsorbed and not excreted.
o Once reabsorbed, they are going to go back to the liver and get metabolized.
It takes 6 half lives to effectively clear the drug from your system.
Psych 413 Lecture 3 1/24/12
PO = per orum
o Has to resist stomach acids and enzymes.
o Drugs can be absorbed in the stomach, but most is absorbed in the small intestine.
Stomach walls -> capillaries
Small intestine (GI tract)
o Lined with cap
Dosage (mg/kg or g/kg)
o Drug effect is related to its concentration in the body
Not to absolute amount given.
Dont do this with over the counter drug because it is too complicated.
ALL drugs have multiple effects.
o Type of drug, dosag
Psycn 413 Exam Review 2/6/12
o Pka = 7.7
o Increase in pH of the environment makes absorption of arecholine better.
Margin of safety is between ED50 and TD 50
o 2K+ in, 3Na+ out.
Reduce in potency shifts the graph to the righ