Summer Honor 2009
Drugs, pharmaceuticals, & Medicinals
Mitomycin Canticancer drug
In the last few years, cancer is one of the diseases that killed the most people. Scientists
already found a lot of ways and drugs to treat cancers,
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM II
What Can Change the Value of the Equilibrium Constant?
Changes in pressure, concentration or the presence of a catalyst do
not alter the value of the equilibrium constant.
A change in TEMPERATURE DOES alter the value of the equil
Chemical Equilibrium I
There are reactions where the reactants are NOT all used up and then
the reaction stops.
In a reversible reaction the forward reaction forms products and at the
same time the products reform the reactants.
The Nature of Energy
Energy is defined as the capacity to do work or transfer heat.
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy CAN be converted from one form to another but it neither can
be created or destroyed
Units of Energy: unit
Oxidation and Reduction
A reaction that involves reacting species gaining and losing electrons is
called a redox reaction.
The species that loses electrons is said to be oxidized.
The species that gains electrons is said to
Balancing Redox Chemical Equations
Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
An oxidizing agent is a reactant that accepts electrons from another
reactant. An oxidizing agent oxidizes another substance while it is
A reducing agent is a reactant that gives el
Gibbs Free Energy
Standard Free Energy Change
Definition: The change in free energy that will occur if the reactants in
their standard states are converted to the products in their standard
Standard free energy is not measured directly.
mical Equilibriums Link to Free En
G = Go + R T ln Q
G depends on two quantities: Go and R T ln Q.
For a given reaction at temperature T, the value of Go is fixed.
For a given reaction at temperature T, the value of R T ln Q is NOT
ENTROPY: Energy Dispersal
Thermodynamics allows us to know if a reaction will occur but gives no
information about the amount of time required for the process.
Thermodynamics considers only the initial and final states of reactan
Gas Laws I
Elements that exist as gases at 25 oC and 1 atmosphere
*Gaseous elements in blue
Physical Characteristics of Gases
Gases uniformly fill any container.
Gases are the most compressible state of matter.
Gases will mix evenly and completely when co
Hesss Law and Enthalpy of Formation
Points to remember about Enthalpy
Enthalpy is a state function.
H depends on the amount of matter that undergoes change.
Magnitude of H depends on the temperature, pressure and state
(gas, liquid or solid crystalline
Enthalpy and Calorimetry
Enthalpy, H is the heat transferred between the system
and surroundings under constant pressure.
H is a state function
H = E + PV
Change in enthalpy:
H = E + PV
Under constant pressure: only work allowed is pressure-volum
Jenna Czubek, Terance Garrett, Sarah Huang, Chessa Kilby, Jackson Kontny
Our mission is to provide children with social services such as shelter, food, healthcare and education in a Christian atmosp
Have you ever thought about what scares you the most when you go to a new place?
For me, the most frightening thing in my life is loneliness. I remember how difficult it
was when I first came to the United States. We had no house of our own, so we l
ChuQian Huang Lake View High School 11th
Indiana State University Summer Honor Program
Great Summer Time
After a long school year, we could finally have a break- summer! In the past
summers, I spent most of my time on those boring stuffs. Howev
People thank to God for giving them lives, thank to who raise them, thank to who have given
them a hand. However, I want to say "thank you" to my teacher, not because I love her, but for her
mean attitude to me. Am I crazy? No. If you want to know why, re
CHEM 102G Information
Instructor: Dr. Kelly Marville
Lecture Times: Monday and Wednesday 11 to 11:50 a.m.
Lecture Location: 100 Noyes Lab
Location of my office: 205 Chem Annex
E-mail: [email protected]
Please refrain from using electronic devices duri
Localized Electron Model:
Lewis Structures and Resonance
Localized Electron (LE) Model
This model assumes that a molecule is composed of atoms that share
electron pairs by utilizing their atomic orbitals.
In this model:
1) Lone pairs are electro
AND BOHR MODEL OF THE ATOM
The process of unit conversion is facilitated using dimensional analysis.
Unit factors are utilized in this process and are made from any two
Problem: Convert 61
Intermolecular Forces (IMF)
Intermolecular Forces (IMF)
An intermolecular force occurs between molecules, rather than within
Intermolecular forces include:
1. London Dispersion Forces (LDF)
2. Dipole-Dipole Interactions
3. Ion-Dipole Interacti
Gas Laws II
Using the Ideal Gas Law to Calculate Molar Mass of a Gas
PV = nRT
n = moles of gas (mol) =
mass of gas (g)
Molar mass (g/mol)
Using the Ideal Gas Law to Calculate Density of a Gas
PV = RT
PM = dRT where d=density
Density (g/L) =
mass of gas (g