Land was also the basis for Kenyas independence and thats why the land issues are so entrenched in the
Kenyas politics (Syagga 2011:4).
After independence, not all Kenyans were able to recover their land that had been taken away from them.
As Branch argue
Association, Kavirondo Tax Payers Associations among other (INADEV 2014).Kenyans once again tried
to unite under Kenya African Union (KAU) in 1944 but their unity did not last long. Ajulu (2002) argues
that, KAU was formed to try and bring Kenyans togethe
The two Uhuru and Ruto, are standing trial at the International Criminal Courts (ICC) for crimes against
humanity due to their role in post-election violence of 2007/2008.As the norm in Kenya, there coalition
may have been one of convenience to get them t
In this section, I have presented different sets of secondary data from different institutions, authors and
primary data that i collected through two interviews. All this data have an aspect of ethnicity, land and
political system in
Figure (iii) : How often party competition leads to conflict.
Source : Afrobarometer
While 6 % of the population says political party competition never leads to conflict, 41% agrees that it
often happens and a more 23% indicate that this always happens. 2
Ethnic Groups in Kenya
According to population census of 2009, Kenya population was approximately 41 million. This
population is from close to 44 different ethnic groups and is broadly classified linguistically with Kikuyu
as the majority followed by
General elections of 2013 in Kenya were relatively peaceful, compared to 2007/2008 where violence
erupted and people killed one another and property worth millions of money destroyed. The violence left
1,200 people dead and more than 600,000 peop
Intrinsic perspective: From this approach, ethnicity is demonstrated as fixed and entrenched to
the human history and biological setting. As Rupesinghe argues, human beings have an inborn historical
element of ethnic identification and hostility. Na
Agenda 1 to 3 were to address the crisis that had hit the country, and the issues that needed urgent
attention in order to stop the violence that was still being experienced in different parts of the country.
Agenda 4 was to deal with long outstanding unr
Kenya like many African countries is a home to many ethnic groups who have different cultures, customs,
believes and speak different languages. Sometimes, conflicts between these groups are inevitable and they
are caused by many factors w
export. Humanitarian aid to Congo and Southern Sudan passes through this port and so transport
interruption in Kenya during the violence period caused a lot of problems in these countries (Kimani
2008). Being a Kenyan, i would also want to understand caus
1. I also had an experience in Denmark, where I attended a party organized by Kenyans living here. I
introduced myself to one person and he asked me what part of Kenya I come from. I innocently said
central but my friend did not take that kindly, he start
List of Acronyms
Agriculture Development Cooperation
Commission of Inquiry into Post-Election Violence
International Criminal Court
Member of Parliament
KADU Kenya African Democratic Union
Kenya African National Union
Reliability, Replicability and Validity
Reliability as Bryman (2004) indicates, it deals with the idea of if the results from a certain research can
be repeated. As he further argues that this is important in research so as to ensure consistent on soc
This section presents the various trends, patterns and themes derived from the empirical chapter. Similar
patterns obtained from different sources of data, have been discussed together under one subtitle. For
example, if there is an aspect of
BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM
To understand the issue of ethnic violence in Kenya, i decided to look at historical aspect of the problem
which dates back to colonization, various ethnic groups in Kenya, how land is owned & distributed, an
Figure (iii) High Potential Agriculture Land per Capita.
Source : Kenya for Peace with Truth and Justice, Figure 3.3 (2010:11)
As mentioned elsewhere in this research, arable land in Kenya is classified between high to medium
potential land, high potentia
First of all i want to thank God for making my dream of achieving a Masters degree in Europe come true.
I started this journey without a clear picture of how i will make it through, but God in His own divine
ways, made it possible.
have been reading. I will also use ethnic violence or ethnic conflict to mean scenarios where different
ethnic groups attach one another over fight for resources causing injury, killing or wanting to eliminate
Indigenous people is defined as
allowed for the land which the native had occupied not to be alienated, Crown Lands Ordinances of 1902
changed it and gave the commissioner the authority to acquire the land the native were living in and he
could sell it to the settlers (TJRC 2013 Vol.IIB
This chapter outlines the structure and the methodological framework used in this research work. I have
started by an introduction, where i have highlighted issues related to ethnic violence and how the need for
land reforms came to be. Ad
is attributed to its vibrant private sector, high level of human capital, its well advanced information
communication technology sector and dynamic economies that are connected to other economies all over
the world through trade and investment. Kenya also
The sitaad usually brings together a group of friends and acquaintances who share similar views.
Likewise, most weddings and festivals involve women from a relatively narrow social base. Womens
organizations, however, particularly in the larger towns, hav
Figure (iv) Migration to Rift Valley by different ethnic groups in 000.
: Kenya for Peace with Truth and Justice .
The number of migrants to Rift Valley has been increasing and they have be
Somalis in Kenya with a score of 24% and 13% respectively. This could be associated with the terrorist
attacks which have happened in Kenya. Whereas not all Somali are bad, due to the few who have been
involved in these terror attacks, peoples perceptions
Above statements were made in various constitutional referendum campaigns meeting in 2005, by
politicians affiliated to different political parties. All these statements are seen to incite different
communities against one another in view of the referendu
5 principles of politics:
1. Rationality principle: All political behavior has a purpose. Ex: politicians will do
what is necessary to win, whether it involves lies or not.
2. Collective Argument: People can think whatever they want as
275 Review Session:
Questions are lengthy and mostly application questions.
Read through the lectures.
Political Economy: Whoever has the most Capital runs more things and have more
3 Political Economy: Historical, Institional, Critical
do this in most cases to their advantage. As Esman argues, the world is made up of individual who make
calculated steps inorder to be in a position to gain or maintain their positions of power, economic welfare
social positions and security over others.
Table (i) above shows prominent people and some media houses, whose actions and statements have been
considered to have contributed in one way or another into the violence of 1998 and 2007.Although there
is no action the Kenyan government has taken agains
Kenya National Commission on Human Rights Data
Table 1 : Statements that could incite violence.
Squatters occupying the late JM Kariukis land should not vacate,
notwithstanding a courts order to the contrary.
People should prepare for war if
Figure (ii) Kenyas population as of 2009 in 000,000
Source : Kenya for Peace with Truth and Justice, Figure 3.1(2010:11)
As of 2009, Kenyas population was estimated to be at 39 million people. Rift Valley province was a
home to more than 10 million people
use of land. Part of land reforms that have not yet taken effect is the issues to do with historical land
injustices and this have been a source of conflict in Kenya for a long time. The National Land Policy has
proposed redistribution, restitution and re