Types of Sociology
Not all universities approach sociology the same way, and the new science evolved differently
depending on where it was taught and who was teaching it. The two major types of sociology that
emerged were qualitative sociology and quantit
Every society has expectations about how its members should and should not behave. A norm is a
guideline or an expectation for behavior. Each society makes up its own rules for behavior and
decides when those rules have been violated and what to do
The Interaction of Cultures
When many different cultures live together in one society, misunderstandings, biases, and judgments
are inevitablebut fair evaluations, relationships, and learning experiences are also
possible. Cultures cannot remain entirely
Status and Roles
Most people associate status with the prestige of a persons lifestyle, education, or vocation.
According to sociologists, status describes the position a person occupies in a particular setting. We
all occupy several statuses and play the
Hierarchy of Cultures
In societies where there are different kinds of people, one group is usually larger or more powerful
than the others. Generally, societies consist of a dominant culture, subcultures, and countercultures.
The Other Social Sciences
Social sciences concern peoples relationships and interactions with one another.
Sociology, with its emphasis on social life, falls into this category. A multidisciplinary
field, sociology draws from a variety of other social sci
Culture is everything made, learned, or shared by the members of a society, including values,
beliefs, behaviors, and material objects.
Culture is learned, and it varies tremendously from society to society. We begin learning our culture
What Sociologists Do
People with training in sociology pursue a variety of different career and research paths. Because
society is such a broad field of study, a background in sociology helps support dozens of different
career choices. What follows are se
What Is a Society?
According to sociologists, a society is a group of people with common territory, interaction, and
culture. Social groups consist of two or more people who interact and identify with one another.
Territory: Most countries have formal bo
The Birth of Sociology
Auguste Comte (17981857), widely considered the father of sociology, became interested in
studying society because of the changes that took place as a result of the French Revolution and the
Industrial Revolution. During the French
Types of Societies
The society we live in did not spring up overnight; human societies have evolved slowly over many
millennia. However, throughout history, technological developments have sometimes brought about
dramatic change that has propelled human s