BIOS 101 Dr. Molumby
Multiple Choice Questions (worth 2 points each)
Questions 1-2 make use of the following scenario. In snapdragons, flower color is
determined by a single locus with two codominant alleles.
What's the energy yield of one turn of the Krebs cycle?
3 NADH 1 FADH2 1 GTP
What's the general formula for photosynthesis?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light -> C6H12O6 +6 O2; each turn of the cycle, this
steals the H2 from water and the C and one O from CO2 to make
Non-coding DNA regions between genes
intergenic DNA sequences
What are the three stop codons?
UAA, UAG, UGA
Term for a portion of DNA wrapped around a histone; specifically, the
length of DNA wrapped around 8 histones which is about 147 bases
Ingredients of Chromosomes
Chromatin consists of 2 macro molecules: _ &
DNA & Protein (histones)
Sub-unit of a chromosome
For a given organism, chromatid number is dependent on the
Stage of Cell Cycle
Ends of Chromosome
Nitrogenous base seen only in RNA
DNA's shape; 2 strands, twisted
Single ringed nitrogenous base
Three parts of a nucleotide
Phosphate Group, Pentose Sugar, Nitrogen Base
Names of the three chloroplast membranes
Outer membrane, inner membrane, thylakoid membrane
Space inside the 2nd ("inner") membrane a chloroplast?
Stacks of discs inside of the stroma (space) in a chloroplast?
Individual disc inside of the st
Name for a string of ribosomes working on the same piece of mRNA,
generally in bacteria cells
A unit of three nucleotides that code for a single protein
Proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences to promote (as an
activator) or block
Located inside of centromere, where spindle fibers attach.
Centromere is in middle of chromosome
Centromere is between middle and end of chromosome
Centromere is close to end of chromosome
Mitosis phase where chromesomes condense, the spindle assembles,
nuclear envelope breaks down, and spindle fibers attach to the
What happens in Mitosis Prophase?
Prophase is the first of four phases. Chromesomes condense, the
Mieosis phase where tetrads line up at the spindle equator and
homologues each face a pole
Mieosis phase where homologues separate and the dyads move to
Mieosis phase where split nuclei move to poles
Process of Cell
Method for increasing (amplifying) a quantity of DNA
polymerase chain reaction
The study of protein structure and function
Term for genes coded together as a unit and the DNA sequences that
control their transcription
Dark staining regio
Half of each chromatid consists of old strands.
Cell cycle phase where cells have two chromatids (in humans)
Phase consisting of G1+S+G2
Division of Nucleus
Two types of Karyokinesis
Mitosis & Meiosi
Number of autosomes in humans
Determine sex of chromosomes (ignore this one; can't delete these)
Testes Determining Factor, determines if you are a man able to have
All of the chromosomes in the nucleus of an organism.
How do Somatic cells divide?
Divide by Mitosis
How do Germ cells divide?
Divide by Meiosis
Total Number of Chromosomes in humans
Female Sex Chromosome
Male Sex Chromsome
Linear DNA is found in the _.
What is the product of each turn of the Calvin cycle?
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P), which is used to form glucose; it
takes three turns of the Calvin cycle to produce one extra G3P; every
three turns, five molecules of G3P are used to re-form three mo
What happens in Mitosis Telophase?
Telophase is the last of the four phases. The spindle disappears,
cytokinesis starts, and a new nuclear envelope forms
What are the four phases of Mitosis, in order?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Do plants hav
What causes Down syndrome?
Extra copy of chromosome 21
Describe Turner syndrome
XO; short, wide neck, female, broad chest
Describe Klinefelter syndrome
XXY; long arms, male, less testie, no beard
Describe Swyer syndrome
XY female lacking a functional SKY
Three copies of every chromosome; Examples: Seedless plants
Four copies of every chromosomes; Examples: Domestic wheat, oversized fruits
DNA -> RNA -> Protein
Contains Gene, Transcribed
Complementary to te
This space acts as a reservoir for hydrogen ions (H+) during
This produces ATP using the proton gradiant across the thylakoid
The reduced (charged with an extra electron) version of NADPH
This is used by some bacteria to protect their own DNA against
methylation; attach a -CH3 to a nucleotide
Enzyme used by retroviruses to build DNA from RNA
E. coli bacteria phage commonly used in the labratory for
Term for chemical reactions that require net energy input
What's the general formula for carbohydrate metabolism in
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy
What's the general formula for carbohydrate production in chloroplasts?
Term for adding a phosphor group to a molecule
Term for the type of enzyme that catalyizes the transfer of a phosphor
Energy using process by which cells absorb molecules such as proteins
by engulfing them
Space enclosed by the mitochondria's inner membrane
"Fluid" portion of the fluid-mosaic model
Small organelle that's the basic tool for organizing different cell
substances; involved in metabolism, transport, and enzyme storage.
Free energy change when oxidizing one mole of glucose
delta-G = -686 kcal/mole
Symbol used to represent change in entropy of a chemical system
Symbol used to represent change in heat of a chemical system
Symbol used to represent change in
Glycolysis breaks glucose down into two molecules of this 3 carbon
1 molecule of glucose recharges approximately how many ADP
molecules into ATP?
38 molecules of ATP
What is the energy cost and replayment of glycolysis?
Costs two AT
Enzyme synthesis is said to be one of these two things if it can be turned
on or off
A gene that codes for a repressor. The repressor coded for attaches to
the operator site and may be activated by inhibition by yet another
A protein complex that removes introns from mRNA
Direction of DNA
5' - 3'
Double ringed nitrogenous base
DNA is this type of molecule
Type of tail that protects mRNA
Type of sugar in RNA
Type of sugar in DNA
What's the term for when a compound loses an electron in a chemical
oxidation; so named because oxygen really likes to gobble up electrons
What's the term for when a compound gains an electon in a chemical