Phil102 Homework 9
Leon Zhan
Yizhan2
P401 Part I
R is nontransitive
~(x)(y)(z)(xRyyRz) xRz)~(x)(y)(z)(xRyyRz) ~xRz)
R is not transitive and R is not intransitive
Part II
m: Mary
j: John
L: . . . loves
Phil102 Homework 8
Leon Zhan
Yizhan2
p. 398
1. Some bands are hot = (x)(BxHx)
2. Some bands are not hot = (x) (Bx ~Hx).
3. No carnivores are vegetarians = ~(x)(CxVx) = (x)(Cx~Vx)
4. All vegetarians ar
A Philosophical Introduction to Formal Logic
Chapter 5: Set Theory
In previous chapters we have developed a formal language adequate for translating many
ordinary English sentences, and we have develo
A Philosophical Introduction to Formal Logic
Chapter 6: Probability
The actual science of logic is conversant at present only with things either certain,
impossible, or entirely doubtful, none of whic
First-Order Natural Deduction
Part 4: Identity Introduction and
Elimination
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Next semester, I am teaching PHIL 471:
Contemporary Philosophy of Science.
We will be studying how people t
First-Order Natural Deduction
Part 2: Existential Introduction and
Elimination
Business
Midterm Exam on Monday, October 20.
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A practice midterm exam is online.
Review session this Sunday at 4:
Professor Livengood is on his way to Utah
for a conference on Inductive Logic and
Confirmation in Science.
Homework
There is no homework this week! Enjoy the
break.
First-Order Natural Deduction
Part
First-Order Natural Deduction
Part 1: Universal Introduction and
Elimination
Happy Birthday to Talan
Three years old!
Business
Homework #7 has been posted. It is due on
Monday, October 20.
The Midterm
Set Theory
Diagrams, Notation, and Paradox
Review
Last time we introduced the idea of sets by
analogy with boxes.
Sets and Diagrams
A set is a collection or grouping of objects,
which are called the e
Please get your flu shot soon.
Set Theory
Intersection, Union,
Set Difference, and Power Set
Review
Last time we talked about how to represent sets
with diagrams and curly-brace notation.
Trustworthy
Set Theory
Introduction
Review
What have we done so far?
Preview
In upcoming lectures, we will be thinking about
inferences that are not necessarily truth
preserving. Such inferences are called amplia
Probability Theory
Confirmation
And
Evidential Favoring
Review: Total Probability
Suppose that in a certain field, there are two
varieties, A and B, of a grassy plant. Each plant
grows to be tall or s
Probability Theory
Humes Problem of Induction
And
Bayes Solution
Conditional Probability
Let and be arbitrary sentences in our formal
language. Then we define the conditional
probability of given , de
Probability Theory
Variables and Distributions, Part 2
The Big Picture
Statistical inference is a logic of induction.
The aim of statistics is to make reliable
inferences about the character of a
popu
Probability Theory
Conditional Probability and
Independence
Review: Probability
Probability is a measure.
Review: Probability
We will think of the probability function as a
mapping from events, which
Phil102 Homework 10
Leon Zhan
Yizhan2
p. 114, Part I
1. Reference class: eligible young people
Attribute class: people who voted in midterm elections
Reasonably strong
2. Reference class: Young people
Most genetic markers are co-exemplified by humans and rhesus monkeys.
Therefore, the particular markers for language acquisition are co-exemplified by
humans and rhesus monkeys.
EC Problem 1. Criticiz
Homework 6
Leon Zhan
Yizhan2
p. 360
Part I
1. Some novelists are not writers.
3. All American automobiles are not electric.
7. All football players are dancers.
9. No stockbrokers are rich.
Part II
1.
HW4
Leon Zhan
Yizhan2
P331
Part I
1. q~r.
3. q->r.
5. ~r->~q.
7. q->p.
9. ~r.
11. q~p.
13. r v (p~q)
15. r(~pv~q)
Part II
1. Logic is easy but symbols cannot be used
3. It is not true that logic is fu
Phil102 Homework 11
Leon Zhan
Yizhan2
p. 154-55
2. In a nationwide poll of registered voters conducted on landline
telephones, 60 percent of registered voters said they had voted in the
presidential e
1. The opponents states that you cannot draw a line in between a fetus life to
decide when before its a human nor when after its not a human. Which was
called slippery slope arguments. And Thomson sta
Inference
Arguments
Expression of an inference in language
P1, P2, P3
C
Note: the Ps called the premisses and C the conclusion of
the argument
Some basic definitions
An argument is acceptable iff the
Choice of decision rule regarding the Newcombs puzzle
You are presented with two boxes, one opaque with an unknown amount of money and one
transparent with 1,000 dollars. One can either choose 2 boxes
Argument analysis of the child-saving argument1
Malaria has always been heatedly discussed the whole world. By comparing the cost of saving one child
from fire and that of saving thirty children from
Argument analysis of the hypothetical argument in response to Norcross analogy1
In light of the story of Fred, who tortured puppies to gain cocoamone to help him experience
the taste of chocolate, Ala
Argument analysis of No Fear Shakespeare in Henry V.1
While his cousin, Westmoreland, hoped for more Englishmen to come to the war, King
Henry made his argument about why he thought it was even better
PHIL 103: Logic and Reasoning QRII
Homework #9
Due Monday, November 17
1. Describe three ways in which a set is different from an ordinary group or collection of things.
2. Describe a set having five
PHIL 103: Logic and Reasoning QRII
Homework #10
Due Monday, December 1
Problems 1-7 refer to the same childs book. Facts introduced in earlier problems should be
assumed to be true for later problems
Leon Zhan
Yizhan2
HW5
P346
1. No, because the premises and the conclusion are the
same so it cannot be invalid.
2. No. If an argument has a self-contradictory premise,
then it is impossible for all of
Phil102 Homework 12
Leon Zhan
Yizhan2
P199
1. Martha failed the exam because there wasnt enough time to finish it.
- A necessary causal condition
- an agent cause
- a sufficient condition against a ba