NONIONIZING RADIATION
M. Ragheb
4/3/2006
INTRODUCTION
Microwaves and lasers are forms of nonionizing radiation. Mobile or cellular
phones which transmit and receive information in the microwave part of the
electromagnetic spectrum, have become a $100 bill

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF PARTICLE
TRANSPORT IN MONTE CARLO THEORY
M. Ragheb
4/7/2003
INTRODUCTION
A mathematical formulation of particle transport using the Monte Carlo method is
exposed. It is recognized that the Monte Carlo method being primarily a n

Natural
Nuclides
Table
Dr. M. Ragheb
1-Jan
Mass
Number
Atomic
Number
Neutron
Number
Chemical
Name
A
Z
N
Symbol
(percent)
M-A
H
H
He
He
Li
Li
Be
B
B
C
C
N
N
O
O
O
F
Ne
Ne
Ne
Na
Mg
Mg
Mg
Al
Si
Si
Si
P
S
S
S
Cl
S
Ar
Cl
Ar
K
99.985
0.015
0.00014
99.99986
7.5

LIST OF THE KNOWN ELEMENTS
M. Ragheb
1/23/2002
Atomic Number
Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
(amu)
Density
[gm/cm3]
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
n
H
He
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
Na
Mg
Al
1.008665
1.007940
4.002602
6.941000
9.012182
10.811000
12.010700
14.006740
15.

GAMMA RAYS INTERACTION WITH MATTER
M. Ragheb
1/31/2006
INTRODUCTION
Gamma rays interaction with matter is important from the perspective of shielding
against their effect on biological matter. They are considered as ionizing radiation whose
scattering by

ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION OF RADIOACTIVE
CONTAMINATION
M. Ragheb
1/15/2006
INTRODUCTION
After World War II, the USA assumed responsibility of the Marshall Islands
under the trusteeship system of the United Nations. In 1947 president Truman authorized
a nu

NPRE 441
Principles of Radiation Protection
Date
Date
Assigned
Due
Number
Description
Obtain the Neumann series solution of the Transport Equation in terms of the
outgoing collision density as:
1
Jan. 18
= S + (CT )
Jan. 25
Compare the solution to that f

Source Problem. Point Californium-252 fission source in a water cylinder
c ip.txt
c M. Ragheb
c University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
c 2/9/2006
c *
c Cells specifications
c *
1 1 -1.0 -1 -2 3 $ Water cylinder, density 1.0 [gm/cm3]
2 0 1:2:-3 $ Outs

HOMEWORK POLICY
Please pay attention to the following homework policies:
1. Homework assignments are due at the beginning of the class period,
one week from the day that they were assigned.
2. Late homeworks will receive a penalty; thus, it will not
b

SAMPLING SPECIAL DISTRIBUTIONS
M. Ragheb
4/19/2004
INTRODUCTION
Monte Carlo simulations require the sampling of various distributions at different
steps in the simulation process. There exist a multitude of approximate algorithms that
have been ingeniousl

NEUTRON COLLISION THEORY
M. Ragheb
3/30/2006
INTRODUCTION
We wish to analyze the process by which neutrons scatter upon collision with the nuclei of
different materials. The intended use is in shielding, dosimetry, and criticality calculations. The
energy

RADIOBIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
M. Ragheb
1/21/2006
INTRODUCTION
The use of radioisotopes as research tools has contributed to the growth in
knowledge about biological processes. Radioactive isotopes are used to reveal the secrets
of the gene structure of deoxy

TRANSPORT THEORY
M. Ragheb
4/2/2003
1. INTRODUCTION
The term "Transport Theory" is used to refer to the mathematical description of
the transport of particles, whether they are photons of electromagnetic radiation including
light photons, x-rays or gamma

Vector Relations
M. Ragheb
1/17/2004
Element of Volume
Cartesian coordinates
dVcar = dx dy dz
Cylindrical coordinates
dVcyl = rdr d dz
Spherical coordinates
dVsph = r 2 sin dr d d
Gradient
The gradient operates only on a scalar function and converts it in

THE MONTE CARLO METHOD
M. Ragheb
3/31/2004
1. INTRODUCTION
The Monte Carlo Method, also known as the Method of Statistical Trials, is a
statistical method for solving deterministic or probabilistic problems across the scientific
and engineering discipline

RANDOM NUMBERS
M. Ragheb
3/31/2004
1. INTRODUCTION
The use and generation of random numbers uniformly distributed over the unit
interval: [0,1] is a unique feature of the Monte Carlo method. These are used as building
blocks for constructing and sampling

RADIOACTIVE TRANSFORMATIONS THEORY, THE WEAK
FORCE
M. Ragheb
2/15/2006
INTRODUCTION
At any given moment thousands of rays of radiation are criss crossing the human body.
These rays are invisible, and are just part of nature. It is important that we all be

RADIATION DOSIMETRY
M. Ragheb
1/17/2006
INTRODUCTION
Radiation dosimetry depends on the accumulated knowledge in nuclear science in
general and in nuclear and radio chemistry in particular. The latter is concerned with the
study of the inner workings of r

IONIZING RADIATION UNITS AND STANDARDS
M. Ragheb
1/27/2006
INTRODUCTION
Radiation is a natural phenomenon that existed long before the advent of humans,
and permeates the known Universe. Humans have used radiation in useful applications
such nuclear medic

Greek Alphabet
Capital
Small
Name
Alpha
Beta
Gamma
Delta
Epsilon
Zeta
Eta
Theta
Iota
Kappa
Lambda
Mu
Nu
Xi
Omicron
Pi
Rho
Sigma
Tau
Upsilon
Phi
Chi
Psi
Omega

COSMIC AND SPACE RADIATION
M. Ragheb
2/1/2006
INTRODUCTION
Even though we do not feel or see them, our bodies on Earth are bombarded every
moment of the day and night by cosmic rays and their interaction products coming to us
from the depth of space. Thes