Tend to use only low end of the scale when rating employee performance
Provide baseline for improvement
Maintain impression of being in control
Problem with Distributional Errors
Ratings do not adequately
Assumes past behavior is best predictor of future behavior
Collected in one of two ways:
Application Blank - very widely used and abused as companies fail to get valuable information because
they use stock surveys
How well a test predicts a criterion that is measured at the same time as the test
Often more viable than Predictive Validity studies
Steps for Concurrent Validity study:
1) Collect data on both predictors and criteria from incumbent e
Campbell's taxonomy to account for performanceJob-specific Task Proficiency - core job tasks
Non-job-specific Task Proficiency - general tasks
Written and Oral Communication Tasks
Demonstrating Effort- consistency and persistence. Maintaining Personal Dis
Decision Accuracy for Hires - percentage of hiring decisions that are correct
surgeons, cops, pilots, etc.
Overall Decision Accuracy - maximizing number of hits and correct rejections while minimizing
misses and false alarms
Describe Miller's (1956) famous result.
Miller studied memory capacity and learned that we are limited capacity of 7 2 items
Describe what recording/chunking is.
Process of grouping items together (creating chunks), and then remembering the newly formed g
History of I/O through WWI to the 1920's
Yerkes (President of APA) - Development of the Army Alpha and Beta mental ability tests - group
Military uses I/O Psychologists extensively - Bingham and Scott
Bruce V. Moore - first I/O Ph.D. from Carnegie
Worker-Oriented Approaches: What is a Common Metric
Common Metric Questionnaire - newly developed instrument (Harvey)
2,077 items organized along 80 dimensions
Takes 3 hours to complete on-line
Items are more behaviorally specified than PAQ
What is OBC Psychology?
formal definition- Application of psychological principles and theories to the workplace.
simple definition- The study of how people get along with each other at work and are able to do their
differences between i
OBC and Performance Appraisal
OBC psychologists especially well-suited to be involved in PA because of training:
Performance management: a system of individual performance improvement includes
Summary of how to tell if something is reliable
test-retest- stability of tests over time.
parallel forms- equivalence of two tests forms
internal consistency- consistency among test items.
Types of Predictors
Graphic Rating Scales
Advantages- 1) Easy to develop
2) Easy to use. 1) Lack of precision in dimensions
2) Lack of precision in anchors
Advantages- 1) Precise and well-defined scales good for coaching
2) Well received by raters and ratees
Job Design and Redesign
Reveal problems and opportunities for better job design.
Identify areas that need training programs to be developed.
The 3 common approaches to job analysis
Focus on describing various tasks that are performed
Allowing employees to participate in the appraisal process affects EE reactions toward the appraisal
Employees should participate in all steps of the performance appraisal interview. How?
Cawley, Keeping, & Levy (JAP, 1998)