when the inner/core electrons cause the valence/outer electrons to have less attraction to the nucleus
because of electron repulsion.
Nuclear Charge (Z)
The number of protons in the nucleus; higher Z = electrons are held tighter therefore
the stuff of the universe. anything that has mass and volume.
the types and amounts of simpler substances that make it up.
a type of matter that has a defined, fixed composition.
the characteristics that give ea
Triels, The elements are characterized by having three electrons in their outer energy levels
Alkaline Earth Metals
2 parts, cation and anion, but contain no oxygen: "hydro_ic acid"
A quad is_
One quadrillion BTU (British Thermal Units)
For the following reaction:
3 CO + 7 H2 C3H8 + 3 H2O
What is the net change in energy?
Of the four classes of molecules of life that we discussed at the
beginning of the semester , which two a
Electron Affinity (EA)
Energy change to add an electron. (exothermic) Increases up and right on the periodic table.
Types of Bonding
Ionic, Covalent, Metallic.
The electrostatic attraction between cations and anions results in an organized a
each of two or more compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the
molecule and different properties.
a figure indicating the antiknock properties of a fuel, based on a comparison with a mixture of
the simplest type of matter with unique physical and chemical properties. consists of only one kind of
atom, cannot be broken or destroyed.
consists of two or more different elements that are bonded chemically. with a fixed mass ratio.
elements whose atoms that don't form compounds with other atoms
elements whose atoms form compounds with other atoms.
Halogens, H2, S8, P4, O2, N2
P4, tetrahedral. created by heating
the effect of orbital shape on orbital energy. the more time spent closer to the nucleus, the lower the
species with unpaired electrons (attracted to magnetic fields)
species with all electrons paired (weakly r
Which one of the human-caused sources of atmospheric NO2 produces
the most NO2?
Which one of the following solutions is acidic?
-[OH-] = 1x10^-7
-[OH-] = 1x10^-5
-[OH-] = 1x10^-3
-[OH-] = 1x
Which of the following is not a major use of fresh water?
-Thermal electric power generation
Reactive Oxygen Species in cells are damaging because they_
-Oxidize DNA, potentially leading to mu
VESPR Linear Molecule
2 electron groups with an angle of 180
VESPR Trigonal Planar Molecule
3 electron groups with an angle of 120
VESPR Bent Molecule
3 electron groups (1 is a lone pair) with an angle less than 120
VESPR Tetrahedral Molecule
4 electron g