Enlightenment attempted moral systems based on rational science
Enlightenment philosophers goal of a perfect society left little room for historical (nonscientific) beliefs
or diverse traditions
In reaction, Romantic philosophers argued humans are more t
Helmholtz, Weber, and Fechner were pioneers in experimental psychology. Wundt synthesized their work into
a unified program of research organized around certain beliefs, procedures and methods.
There has always been tensions between those wantin
structuralism relied heavily on introspection as a means for studying the content and
processes of the mind;
o structuralist sought a pure science unconcerned with practical applications,
Functionalism accepted both introspection and the direct study of
Theoretical orientation in cross-cultural psych. Assumes human nature is the same across
all cultures & that culture has little effect upon the meaning or display of human
characteristics everywhere (i.e., depression is depression, wherever you
There has never been a time when all psychs accepted a single paradigm (closest period, Middle ages).
There has always been tensions between those wanting psych to be a pure science detached from practical
Chapter 18 Humanistic Third Force Psychology
Started in the early 1960s
By mid-20th century there were only two schools of psychology:
o Psychoanalysis focused on pathology and creating normality
Behaviorism saw nothing unique about humans; viewed human
Chapter 16 Psychoanalyses First Force Psychology
Psychology was first a science of conscious experience and later a science of behavior.
Early Schools, Wundt, Titchener, and James, were aware of unconscious processes but dismissed
them as unimportant. (Vo
Early Mental Illness
Mental Illness definition has varied.
Today: psychopathology and abnormal behavior. In the past: mad,
lunatic, maniac, and insane.
1. Recurring themes in behavior and thought processes that characterize mental illness
The downfall of Scholasticism, caused by attacks on Aristotles philosophy, had resulted in widespread
religious skepticism, if not actual atheism.
1. Rene Descartes
a. Founder of Rationalism.
Founder of modern philosophy. Most influential philo
The belief that the laws of association provide the fundamental principles by which all
mental phenomena can be explained. It includes any psychological theory that has
association as its fundamental principle. Hartley's philosophy qualifies but not
Understanding the interaction of the brain and mind is a key theme in the history of psychology. Psych
focuses on the brain-mind relationships.
a. Brain = neural tissue, fluids, chemicals
b. Mind = nonmaterial functions (sensing, feeling, thinking, rememb
The substance Descartes (and others) thought was located in the cavities of the brain.
When this substance moved via the nerves from the brain to the muscles, the muscles
swelled and behavior was instigated.
Aristarchus of Sometimes called
One of the first Western philosopher-theologians to emphasize the works of Aristotle.
Anselm, St. (ca. Argued that sense perception and rational powers should supplement faith. (See also
Ontological argument f
After Sparta defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle flourished but, after
Aristotles death, Rome invaded Greece. Question became What is the nature of the good life? What is
worth believing in? How is the best way to life
1. Early humans Premodernism
a. looked at everything as alive (animism) and gave human attributes to nature (anthropomorphism)
b. assumed a ghost/spirit lived in everything. (breath)
c. Believed in reification when a thought is treated as real i
Allegory of the cave
Analogy of the divided
Dionysiac - Orphic
A mind that transforms, interprets, understands, or values physical experience. The rationalists
assume an active mind.
Persistent observations that cannot be explained by an existing paradigm. Anomalies eventually
1. History & Systems of Psychology Chapter 1 - Introduction
What is psychology? Literally, study of the mind (psyche)
Study of human behavior