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1. Draw the Lewis Structure AND label the hybridization ofALL non-hydrogen
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a. CHzCHCCH H-é: ‘ " =C'H
b. Hcor '0' 592
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1) What is the common name for the following compound?
5 °( ,.
2) What is the IUPAC name for the following compound?
33% WHH \Oe/n Z 3Q CW 0 aids
1213 Exam 2 Q Q 1 ID Name E E :l #
la Consider the cyclopentadienyl carbocation.
\l , H
a. What is its structure?
b. Explain if it is aromatic or not. You must explain all factors (there are FOUR) that affect aromaticity
WE Mrs. Raj
Chem 123 Spring 2011 Version L
Relax! You've done this before! Make sure to READ each questions thoroughly.
1. What alﬂl halide would you use to synthesize the following compound,
using the organoborane shown? L
2. Give the Major product o
The Arrhenius definition classified substances as being acids or bases by their behavior in the solvent water. All Arrhenius acids produce H ions and all Arrhenius bases produce OH ions in aqueous solution. + Neut
he Properties 13aTnd Colloids of Mixtures: Solutions
A heterogeneous mixture has two or more phases, thus sea water has both dissolved and suspended particles. The composition of the sea water is different in various places where a sample may
Intermolecular Forces: Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4
In a solid, the energy of attraction is greater than the energy of motion, while in a gas, it is less. Gases have high compressibility and the ability to flow, while
Nuclear Reactions and Their Applications
Chemical reactions are accompanied by relatively small changes in energy while nuclear reactions are accompanied by relatively large changes in energy. b) Rates of chemical reactions are increase
23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6
The Transition Elements and Their Coordination Compounds
It is always one less than the period number. a) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d x b) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f 14 5d x El
22 The Elements in Nature and
It is abundant in the universe since its simple atoms were the first "created" after the "Big Bang." H2 has the lowest density of any material, so it is only weakly held by the gravitational field of th
21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 21.8 21.9
Oxidation is a loss of electron(s) and an increase in oxidation number. Reduction is a gain of electron(s) and a decrease in oxidation number. An electrochemical process involves an electron flow. At
Thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, and the Direction of Chemical Reactions
Spontaneous processes proceed without outside intervention. The fact that a process is spontaneous does not mean that it will occur instantaneously or even at an
Ionic Equilibria in Aqueous Systems
To maintain a relatively constant pH in a solution. The weak acid in the system reacts with added base and the weak base in the system reacts with added acid. The acid and base need to be of compara
Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions
Ratef = kf[R] Rater = kr[P]
[ P] k K= f = [ R] kr
If the change is one of concentrations, the product concentration(s) will increase, while the reactant concentration(s) will decrease, but the
16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7
Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions
Changes in concentrations of reactants (or products) as a function of time are measured to determine the reaction rate. An increase in pressure increases th
15.1 15.2 15.3
Methane (natural gas) Acetic Acid (in vinegar) Calcium Carbonate Sodium Bicarbonate
Organic Compounds and the Atomic Properties of Carbon
CH4 C2H4O2 CaCO3 NaHCO3
In the early 19th century, many prominent thinkers believed that an
a) Electron configuration, atomic size, ionization energy, and electronegativity. b) The principal quantum number n is related to the size and energy of the orbital. The azimuthal quantum number l gives the shape of the orbital. The s
sp2 sp2 b) b)
Theories of Covalent Bonding
sp3d 2 sp3 c) c) sp sp3d d) d) sp3 sp3d 2 e) sp3d
C has only 2s and 2p orbitals, allowing for a maximum of four hybrids. Si has 3 d orbitals available in addition to the 3s and 3p,
. . . ONO .
The Shapes of Molecules
b) He and d) H cannot serve as a central atom in a Lewis structure. Both have an outermost shell with maximum of two electrons. F cannot serve as a central atom because its valence electrons are in the n
9.1 a) b) c) d)
Models of Chemical Bonding
Larger ionization energy decreases metallic character. Larger atomic radius increases metallic character. Larger number of outer electrons decreases metallic character. Larger effective nuclear charge d
Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity
Elements are listed in the periodic table in an ordered, systematic way that correlates with a periodicity of their chemical and physical properties. The theoretical basis for the table in term
7.1 7.2 7.3
Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure
All types of electromagnetic radiation travel as waves at the same speed. They differ in both their frequency and wavelength. a) X-rays < ultraviolet < visible < infrared <microwave < radio waves.