Chapter 4:
Levels of Measurement: the mathematical precision with which the values of a variable can be
expressed
Nominal: variables whose values have no mathematical interpretation; they vary in kind or quantity, but
not in amount (Ex. Race, occupation,
Surveys
0 Research in which information is obtained from a
sample of individuals through responses to questions
about themselves or others
0 Census is not a survey
0 Surveys are versatile, efficient (low cost), fast, and has
good generalizability (method
Measurement, Reliability, &
Validity
Chapter 4 - Continued
Levels of Measurement
Nominal (qualitative)- unordered states
Ordinal (quantitative)- underlying order in the
responses (go from more to less or bigger to
smaller); the distance between the resp
Conceptualization,
Operationalization, &
Measurement
CHAPTER 4
Overview
Conceptualization
Operationalization
Measurement
Conceptualization
Definition
Conceptualization- The process of specifying what is meant by a term
(concept)
Examples:
Mental health
The Process
and Problems
of Social
Research
Chapter 2 - continued
Connecting Theory and
Research
Theories- logically
interrelated set of
propositions that
helps us make sense
of many interrelated
phenomena &
predict behavior or
attitudes that are
likely t
WHERE DO YOU GET YOUR INFORMATION
ABOUT THE SOCIAL WORLD?
How do you feel about gun control? Are you for it or against it? Do you believe
guns are more negative than positive or more positive than negative? Why?
Where did your beliefs come from? Your pare
EXPERIMENTS
Chapter 7
TRUE EXPERIMENTS
Comparison Groups
Experimental (aka treatment group)
Comparison (receives alternation treatment)
Control (does not receive the treatment)
Role of Time Order
Control Over Time Order
Bring in experimental & contr
The Process
and Problems
of Social
Research
Chapter 2
Social Research Questions
Identify
Unresolved issues- ex: maps shown in class
have unresolved issues; some researchers
work within a certain theory, so every theory
has a set of questions it is trying
Research Ethics
Chapter 4
Basic Ethical Principles
Belmont Report Principles:
Respect for Persons
Beneficence
Justice
Milgram Experiment:
http:/www.youtube.com/watch?v=yr5cjyokVUs
What ethical principles are at play in the Milgram experiment?
What pr
Chapter 6: Research Design and Causation
Association- a criterion for establishing a nomothetic causal relationship between two variables (variation in one variable is related to variation in another
variable)
Causal Effect- (within nomothetic or idiograp
Chapter 4
Levels of Measurement- the mathematical precision with which the values of a variable can be expressed
Nominal- (qualitative); unordered categories; no mathematical interpretation
Ordinal- (quantitative); underlying order in the responses (great
Chapter 6
Unit of Analysis- level
of social life on which
a research question is
focused (could be
individuals, groups,
towns, nations,
organizations, etc.)
Unit of Observationcases about which
measures are actually
obtained in a sample
What is the uni
Exam Review - Sociology 3020
Sampling Chapter 5
Case 1: You are a researcher interested in studying the motivations of individuals who engage
in thrill activities like hang gliding and bungee jumping.
Part 1: What is your population? What are the element
Chapter 4
Level of Measurement: the mathematical precision in which the values can be expressed
Nominal: variables whose values have no mathematical interpretation; they can vary in kind or quantity but not in amount (Ex.
Race, occupation, religious affil
Survey Research:
Writing Survey Questions:
Double negative
Double barreled
Indexes- combination of questions that focus on a similar topic
Idiosyncratic variation
Examples: Images of God, Christian Nationalism (Daughter marrying African
American)
Cau
SAMPLING
Chapter 5
Key Terms
Population
Elements
Sampling Frame
Enumeration Units
Sampling Units
SamplingKey Terms
Population- the group to
Sampling Frame- list of
which the study results
are to be generalized
Elements- individual
numbers of the
p
Sherman & Berk- Minneapolis Domestic Violence experiment found arrests deterred future DV more than counseling or leaving house for a few hours
Chapter 1
Sources of information about the social world:
1. Observation:
Selective- when you only notice things
Exam Review - Sociology 3020
Sampling Chapter 5
Case 1: You are a researcher interested in studying the motivations of individuals who engage in thrill
activities like hang gliding and bungee jumping.
Part 1: What is your population? What are the element
Chapter 6: Research Design and Causation
Association- a criterion for establishing a nomothetic causal relationship between two variables (variation in one variable is related to variation in another
variable)
Causal Effect- (within nomothetic or idiograp