Which of the following is NOT part of the upper respiratory system? Trachea
Which of the following is a passageway for air, food and water? Pharynx
Which structure prevents food or water from entering the trachea? Epiglottis
The gas law that describes the
The portion of the kidney that extends between the renal pyramids is called the renal columns
Which is the correct order of filtrate flow? glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule (DCT),
Test Review 3 A&P
This is the formation of a new glucose molecule. Gluconeogenesis
This is smooth dense irregular connective tissue that is continuous with the outer coat of the ureter. renal capsule
The portion of the kidney that extends between the rena
After glycolysis but before the citric acid cycle, A) Pyruvate is oxidized.
A culture of bacteria is fed glucose containing radioactive carbon and is then examined.
During the citric acid cycle, radioactive carbon would first appear in B) Citrate
BIO TEST CH>7,8,9,10
1n is an abbreviation for A. haploid.
2n is an abbreviation for A. diploid.
After the completion of meiosis in humans, a diploid germ cell has produced cells with half the original
chromosome number, generating _ haploid nuclei. C. 4
BIO TEST LETTERS B,C,D,E,F
Bats, birds, and dragonflies can all fly. Which of the following groups of animals have some members capable
A. reptiles, amphibians, and arthropods
B. reptiles and mammals only
C. mammals and arthropods only
The 2 cm-long structure in the human female that stimulates her to experience
orgasm is the
After the seedling emerged, complete with two green leaves, the carbon dioxide
levels decreased in the closed chamber. This indicated that _ was occurrin
Before a cell divides, it must first duplicate its entire .D. genome.
Binary fission produces _ cells, mitosis produces _ cells, and meiosis produces _ cells.
A. prokaryotic; eukaryotic body; eukaryotic sex
B. genetic; body; sex
C. eukaryotic; prok
Little energy is needed for protein production because cells are efficient in transcription and translation.
Linked genes, by definition, are genes that:
are found on the same chromosome.
Mendel called a masking trait
Mendel called a trai
Analogous structures are analogous if they are superficially similar but not derived from a
common an ancestor. (NOTE- goes along with convergent evolution)
EXAMPLE- some cave animals lose their eyes and pigment to their skin over time.
What is the output of photosynthesis?
Oxygen and glucose
What is Photorespiration?
Using oxygen instead of carbon dioxide during carbon reactions
What process is considered a water-saving strategy for plants in hot and dry
C4 and CAM
Stem cells from an adult
can only produce certain types of cells.
In an inherited form of high cholesterol, HH individuals have a blood cholesterol level greater than 500mg/dL, RH
individuals are near 300mg/dL, and normal (RR) cholesterol levels should be
FINAL BIO TEST LETTER Q,R,S,T,U,V,X,Y,Z
Reproduction of flowering plants
A. relies upon wind to disperse seeds.
B. relies upon wind to disperse pollen.
C. All answers are correct.
D. relies upon animals to disperse pollen.
E. relies upon animals to disper
Using the list you have been given, write the meaning of the following term.
1. Biology: Study of life
2. Cardiac: Toward the Heart
3. Chloroplast: Green Storage Area
4. Endoderm: Inside Sk
6.1 The Flow of Energy in Living Systems
Thermodynamics is the study of energy changes.
Energy can take many forms.
Energy is the capacity to do work. Potential energy is stored energy, and kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Energy can take many form
1) Which of the following statements is NOT part of the cell theory?
a) All organisms are composed of one or more cells.
b) Cells come from other cells by division.
c) Cells are the smallest living things.
d) Eukaryotic cells have evolved from p
The evolution of multi-cellularity and cellular specialization allowed organisms to survive
in an even greater range of environments.
A. Provide evidence that supports hypotheses about the evolutionary origins of
multicellularity, and identify t
With common ancestor, can compare:
Homologous gene sequences
Convergent evolutionorganisms look the same but the structures are not homologous (might be
HIV has a high mutation rate because: multiplies rapidlyretrovirus ma
Developmental plasticitybecause of the different plant hormone signals available, it is possible with
some plants, if you cut off the plant and stick it in waterit will grow roots or the base of the stem and
you have a new plant. What has happened is that
Change in allele frequency in a population
Understanding how selection affects allele frequency (rock mouse coat color/sickle cell)
Patterns of selection
Diruptve, stabilizing, directional (what types of selction is artificial sel
Why really understand meiosis?
Chromosome number in life cycle
Delivers genes to offspring
Genetic variation among offspring
Plants have multicellular haploid stage and multicellular diploid stagethere is mitosis after meiosis
versus in humans, we have mi
The probability of two specific independent events occurring in combination is the product of their
Probability of tossing 2 coins and getting 2 heads? (one person is a carrier = 2/3other carrying TOO is
2/3 and probability of ha
Genetic drift because of a bottleneck, drastic drop in population size due to non-selective disaster
There are some genes for which there arent many heterozygotes because natural selection prefers
Genetic drift because of the founder effect: we ha
Because of X chromosome inactivation, heterozygous mammalian females are genetic mosaics for X
Some cells express genes on one of their X chroms and some cells of others
tabby cat pattern is from the wild type, ancestral gene
Evolution by natural selection produces perfect organisms:
Perfect is very vaguetraits that arent preferred by the current environmentthey dont offer a fitness
advantage in the environment in question. Better adapted to survive at a higher rate in the env
2 hardy Weinberg (allele and genotype equations)
1. Allele frequencies and genotype freq
2. Assumptions of HW equilibrium
3. Population genetics simulator
Here are two alleles for a certain gene locus A and a. 70% of the alleles in a particular gene pool
Monohybrid cross is a mating between two individuals who are heterozygous; consider one traid only
Incomplete dominance is not simple dominancethe heterozygote has a phenotype unlike either
Incomplete dominance from a monohybrid cross yi
Cell walls for support and protection
Cell membranes to regulate transport of materials
Ribosomes for protein synthesis
Lysosomes for digestion of food
Chloroplast for photosynthesis
ER to sort and package materials into vesicles
Centrioles for microtubul
THE CELLUL AR LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION
An Introduction to Cells
What is a Cell?
1. Prokaryotic cell - Bacteria
DNA is not enclosed in a nucleus
2. Eukaryotic cell - All other cells
Contain Organelles, e.g., nucleus
Developed from Rob