The most powerful, wealthiest, most populous, most beautiful city remaining in
the Western world.
Existed since Ancient Greek times, located at the Hellespont (founded in 667 BC
by colonists from Megara, led by Byzas/hence Byzantium)
Topic: Late Byzantium
(867-1056 AD) Macedonian Dynasty
o (867-886 AD) Basil I
Photius > Patriarch of Constantinople (858-867, 877-886 AD)
Founds reading group of intellectuals, studying the classics;
friend says I wasnt able to attend that many sessions
Topic: Medieval Intellectualism Mk. II
The Leadership of the Benedictine Monasteries
English Benedictine Monks playing major role in the conversion of France and
First such monk: St. Boniface (675-755 AD) late period of English monastic
Topic: Rise of Centralized States in Europe
England: Plantagenets dynasty
o William I, the Conqueror (1066-1087 AD)
Strong feudal organization with king as Suzerain, and all barons as
his vassals. Able to control all England through this variety of
THE TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE
Classical Heritage: Strongly based on Greek science, philosophy, and literature.
Islamic World: Baghdad has the "House of Wisdom"
Islamic Spain: Cordoba, Seville, Toledo are grand intellect
Topic: Late Byzantium Mk. II
o Baclaam (1296-1348 AD)
o Demetrius Cydones (1324-1398 AD)
Translates Thomas Aquinas Summa Contra Gentiles and Summa
Theologica, feeling it is the clearest explanation of theology in
existence (the sum
Topic: The Islamic Enlightenment
As Islam spread, it began to digest foreign cultures/ideas.
(661-750 AD): Umayyad dynasty in Damascus
o Byzantine culture absorbed.
(750-1258 AD): Abbassid Dynasty in Baghdad under
o 1) Harun-al-Rashid (785-809 AD)
Augustine of Hippo
Benedict of Nursia
Christianization of the
classics (adaptation of
Stoic beliefs as New
Christian "Duty to
Roman Civil servant who
God"); efforts to assert
became Bishop of Milan.