Biology 51 Evidence for Darwinian Evolution (Chapter 22)
Weve discussed the ideas and concepts that influenced Darwin and helped him to formulate his ideas about natural
selection. Heres a quick summary of natural selection:
There is a stru
Biol 51- The Bryophytes and the Seedless Vascular Plants (Chapter 29)
Many of the organisms that we have talked about live either directly in aquatic environments or at least in moist
environments. Bacteria, protists and fung
Biol 51 Ecosystems
For Chapter 54, please focus only on the material discussed in class (below).
Trophic Levels and Food Webs
When we talk about entire ecosystems, the important traits that we discuss are how energy flows through the
Lab 4 Worksheet Bacteriology I
Lab section _
Directions: Complete the following questions in this laboratory session. You are encouraged to
consult your textbook and one another.
1) What are the most common colony shapes, colony m
Bio 51 Lab
Lab 9 Introduction to Animals - Cnidaria, Platyheminthes, Annelida, Arthropoda
1. What are the pros and cons of radial symmetry and bilateral symmetry?
Biol 51 Flatworms & Annelids
We will now begin our discussion of members of the Bilateria. As members of the bilateria, all of these organisms
share the following properties:
- They are triploblastic, so they make ectoderm, endoderm, AND
Biol 51- Sponges & Jellyfish
(Chapter 33, pgs. 666-673)
The majority of animals (anywhere from 95-99%, depending on whos calculating) are what we call invertebrates
animals lacking a backbone. In fact, as far as animals go, the world is ruled by
Answer Key to Practice Exam 3
I wont have you label any plant or protist life cycles or animal figures from the material
before our lecture on Molluscs (the material that was included on the 3rd midterm).
Remember that you should know your Domains, Kingdoms, important supergroups like
Biol 51 Exam 2 Free Response Practice Questions
1. List 3 traits that the land plants share only with the charophyceans.
2. The following image was of the bryophyte life cycle (Figure 29.8) with labels removed. Follow along with the
figure to answer the q
Biol 51 Phylum Chordata
This is our phylum, and it includes three subphyla:
Subphylum Cephalochordata the cephalochordates, also called the lancelets. These are small, invertebrate filter
Subphylum Urochordata t
Biol 51 Exam 3 Free Response Practice Questions
1. Draw out the gametic life cycle characteristic of the animals. Make sure to label which stages are haploid
and which are diploid.
2. What would be the evolutionary advantage of separating a gastrovascular
Biol 51 Genes within Populations Part 2 (Chapter 23)
Lets review the potential causes of microevolutionary change:
What exactly are the processes that can alter genotype and allele frequencies? What are the causes of
microevolutionary change (facto
Biol. 51 Origin of Species (Chapter 24 & 25)
Most of this lecture is derived from Chapter 24 material; however, I do allude to some material presented in Chapter
25 ( Major changes in body form.pgs. 525-528). Though I will not give a lectu
Biol 51 Prokaryotes: Bacteria & Archaea (Chapter 25 & 27)
Prokaryotic Cell Structure
The Domains Bacteria and Archaea contain the single-celled organisms we call prokaryotes.
Prokaryotic cells contain the following major components (see Fig. 6.6):
Biology 51 Introduction to Darwin and Evolution (Chapter 22 Part I)
Bottom Line: All life is related, and evolution (change through time or the observable or inferable fact of
change, specifically in organisms from generation to generation
BIOL 51 - Introduction to Cells (Chapter 6)
This is a large chapter, so focus on the material from these notes and lecture (I will not hold you responsible for the
section on the various types of microscopy, for example). As we discuss the
Biol 51 Genes within Populations Part 1 Hardy-Weinberg (Chapter 23)
Darwin proposed that the mechanism of evolution was natural selection, and weve gone over evidence for natural
selection as one means of evolutionary change in a population.
Biol 51 Cell cycle/Mitosis and Meiosis (Chapters 12 &13)
For Chapter 12 you should read pages 228-237; you should read all of Chapter 13.
One of the hallmarks of living organisms is that they can undergo reproduction, growth and development. Singl
Biol 51- The Protists (Chapter 28)
Origins of the Eukaryotic Cell
The first eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells ~ 2.5 billion years ago. The first eukaryotic cells appear to have
evolved from prokaryotes most similar to the liv
Biol 51 Angiosperms (the flowering plants) (Chapter 30 & 38)
You should read the section on angiosperms from Chapter 30 (we will discuss the section on evolutionary links
between angiosperms and animals in more detail in a later lecture on pollin
Biol 51 Exam 2 Multiple Choice Practice Questions
1. FtsZ, MreB, and CreS proteins regulate the shape of bacterial cells and help them separate as they divide. These
proteins are homologous to proteins that build what structure in eukaryotes?
Exam 1 Practice Free Response
1. (3 pt) List 3 properties of a living organism.
2. (2.5 pt) What is the usefulness in comparing the embryos of two organisms rather than looking at the adults?
3. (8 pt) You are analyzing a single species of plant
Exam 1 Multiple Choice Practice Questions
1. Which of the following pairs of structures are homologous?
a. the eye of a squid and the eye of a human
b. the jointed leg of a spider and that of a monkey
c. the body shape of a dolphin and that of a shark
Practice Exam 2 Multiple Choice Key
Biol 51 Fungi (Chapter 31)
You should know the general attributes of a fungus. Know what distinguishes one fungal Phylum from another, and be familiar
with the life cycles of the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. You should recognize and k
Biol 51 Characteristics of Animals (Chapter 32)
A little perspective:
Fungi, plants and animals all arose from distinct groups of protist-like creatures: plants from a lineage of the green
algae (the charophyceans), and fungi and animals from dif
Exam 1 Multiple Choice Answers:
Biology Lab Mid-Term Notes:
Chapter 3 The Scientific Method1. The scientific method is based on several fundamental ideas:
Parsimony- the simplest explanation for how things work is usually the best.
Similarity of causation- two experiments conduct