Regulation of Gene Expression
1) How do prokaryotes regulate gene expression in
response to environmental changes?
2) How do eukaryotes regulate gene expression to
maintain different cell types?
3) How does an integrated, multic
From Gene to Protein
Overview: From Gene to Protein
DNA consists of specific sequences of nucleotides.
Transcription is the synthesis of RNA molecules that follow
the sequence of nucleotides in DNA.
Translation is the synthesis of a protein by
Molecular Basis of Inheritance
1953 double helix model for DNA
(James Watson and Francis Crick)
Genes Are DNA
Following the connection of chromosomes to
heredity, identifying the molecules of inheritance
loomed as a major challenge to biologist
Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
Humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes
Pair of homologous
In humans and other mammals, sex is determined by sex
chromosomes of tw
The ability of organisms to produce more of their own
kind distinguishes living things from nonliving matter.
The continuity of life is based on the reproduction of
cells, or cell division
Importance of Cell Division
In unicellular o
Chapter 14 Part 1
Mendel and the
The first person to formulate the modern principles of
heredity was the Austrian monk Gregor Johann Mendel
Mendel carefully manipulated pairings between pea plants
and recorded th
Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
an invasive green alga
This invasive species has
spread over hundreds of km
since its introduction to the
Mediterranean in the 1980s.
Caulerpa are single-celled
organisms - produced
Chapter 10 Part 2
Cell to Cell Communication
A critical component of
a cells environment is
the presence of other
Cell to cell
important in both
Mendel derived the law of segregation by following
a single character from one generation to the next.
The F1 offspring produced in this cross were
monohybrids, heterozygous for one character.
A cross between such heterozygotes is called a