The intensity (e.g., loudness, brightness, length) of a stimulus
can increase attention.
>ln online contexts, one aspect of intensity is intrusiveness, or
the degree to which one is forced to see or interact with a
Larger stimuli are more likely to
be noticed than smaller ones.
Size also affects attention to
Source: ICahnsrs Advsrﬂsilg Research Rspnrl 110.1 B (Boston: Cahnnla Publishi§.gﬂimd}.
Attention is determined by three factors:
1. Stimulus Factors
- Are physical characteristics of the stimulus itself
2. Individual Factors
- Are characteristics which distinguish one individual from
3. Situational Factors
Attention occurs when the
stimulus activates one or more
sensory receptor nerves, and
the resulting sensations go to
the brain for processing.
Attention requires consumers to
allocate limited mental
resources toward information
- Size and intensity
— Insertion frequency
- Colour and movement
— Adaptation level theory
- Compressed messages
- Information quantity—information overload
What function does interpretation fulfil? What effect does it have on how the meaning of a stimulus is
Interpretation is the assignment of meaning to stimuli that have been attended to. Interpretation is a
function of individual, as well as sti
What Is Attention?
Attention always precedes perception. Attention is the central process and
perception is not at all possible without attention. The process of attention serves
the various functions in the organization of our perception and ot
Final and Initial Sample Size
2) Definitions and Symbols
3) The Sampling Distribution
4) Statistical approaches to Determining Sample Size
5) Confidence Intervals
i. Sample Size Determination
Crated by: Seth J. Haigh Manage To Grow.com
Sample (Fictions) Marketing Blue Box Marketing Plan
VIDEO GAME KIOSK MARKETING PLAN
Blue Box Kiosk Game Rentals
14 Feb 2010
Haigh, Seth J.
Page 2 of 25
Table of Contents
1.0 Executive Summary . 4
2.0 Situation A
Individuals are attracted to
pleasant stimuli and repelled by
An ad’s visual or pictorial
component can have a strong
influence, known as a picture
Any factor that draws atten
Isolation is separating a stimulus object from other objects.
Examples of isolation include:
- In store use of a stand-alone kiosk
- In an advertisement, the use of “white space”
- In a radio commercial, surrounding a key part w
Format refers to the manner in which the message is
Simple, straightforward presentations receive more
attention than complex presentations.
What can decrease attention?
- Elements in the message that increase
Position is the placement of an
object in physical space or
In retail stores, items that are
easy to find or stand out are
more likely to attract attention,
such as end—caps and kiosks.
High impact zones in print ads
What is the function of attention as part of the process of perception? What factors affect the stimuli
that a consumer will attend to? How do marketers use this?
Attention occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves and the r
Information quantity represents the number of cues in the
stimulus field. Cues can relate to the features of the brand
itself, typical user of the brand, typical usage situations, etc.
Information helps consumers make
Interpretation is the
assignment of meaning to
Interpretation relates to
how we comprehend and
make sense of incoming
It is influenced by
characteristics of the
stimulus, the individual, and
- Cognitive interpretation
— Process of adding meaning
— From existing knowledge
. semantic meaning
. psychological meaning
- Affective interpretation
— Processing and adding meaning by
Three aspects of interpretation:
It is generally a relative process rather than absolute,
referred to as perceptual relativity.
It tends to be subjective anoI open to a host of
It can be a cognitive "thinking" process
What one is interested in is generally an individual characteristic.
However, certain characteristics of the message, store, and in-
store display can generate consumer interest.
In advertising, factors that incr
Contrast and Expectations
Consumers pay more attention to
stimuli that contrast with their
Expectations drive perceptions of
contrast. Ads that differ from
expectations for a product category
often motivate more attention.
Color and Movement
Color and movement attract
A brightly colored package
or display is more likely to
Color and movement are
also important in ads.
Color and Size Impact on
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