Naming Rules for Organic Compounds
The names of organic molecules are divided into three parts;
1. the root name, indicative of the number of carbon atoms in the longest continuous
chain, which includes the highest priority functional group.
2. the suffix
Intermolecular forces (in order of decreasing strength) are: ion-ion, metallic, dipoledipole and London dispersion (or induced dipole) forces. (Strictly speaking, covalent
bonding, present in covalent network solids, is not an inter-
CHEMISTRY 142 Example Problems
Solutions and Colligative Properties
To be taken up in class or solutions will be posted
NA = 6.022 x 1023
Kf (benzene) = 4.90 oC kg/mol
Kf (ethanol) = 1.99 oC kg/mol
density of H2O = 1.00 g/mL
Kf (CCl4) = 31.8 C kg/mol
Review and Practice Exercises on IMFs and Solutions
Practice Exercise: Consider the intermolecular forces present in the molecules below and place
them in the relational (Venn) diagram, where the largest circle represents those molecules that
More on Phase Diagrams
A phase diagram is a convenient graphical representation that summarizes the particular
phase of a substance as a function of the temperature and pressure conditions. The
boundary lines on a phase diagram represent the simultaneous
CHEMISTRY 142/142A - SPRING 2013
Chemistry Fundamentals II
A continuation of first year chemistry covering stoichiometry, thermochemistry, properties of solutions,
kinetics, acids and bases, solubility, thermodynamics and electroc
Rules For Assigning Oxidation States
1. For free elements the oxidation state is zero.
Fe(s), O2(g), O3(g), H2(g), Hg(l), Hg(g), S(s) etc.
2. For monoatomic ions, the oxidation state is given by the charge on the ion.
Cl- (-1), Fe2+ (+2), Fe3+ (
Introduction to Phase Changes and Intermolecular Forces
There are three states of matter; gas, liquid and solid. A change between these states is
called a phase change or phase transition. Note that the terms state and phase are not
Naming Simple Compounds
Binary Ionic Compounds, where the metal ion has only one oxidation state
(Group 1A, alkali metals and group 2A, alkali earth metals)
1. the cation (positive ion) named first using the element name
2. monatomic cations take name fro
Rules for Reporting Significant Figures
Nonzero digits always count as significant figures
Zeros are what mix people up. There are three situations in which they can occur.
leading zeros precede all nonzero digits and are never significant (i.e., 0.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF LEWIS STRUCTURES
Ionic bonds are the result of the transfer (giving, taking) of one or more electrons from one
atom (or groups of atoms) to another atom (or group). The resultant difference in charge
between the ions so formed is responsi