Virtual University
Computer Graphics
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 40
Fractals
Fractal are geometric patterns that is repeated at ever smaller scales to produce
irregular shapes and surfaces that can not be represented by classical geometry.
F

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
(CS602)
Lecture 17
3D Transformations I
17.1 Definition of a 3D Point
A point is similar to its 2D counterpart; we simply add an extra component, Z, for
the 3rd axis:
Points are now represented w

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
(CS602)
Lecture 23
Lighting I
23.1 MATHEMATICS OF COLOR IN COMPUTER GRAPHICS
It is important to understand how color is represented in computer graphics so
that we can manipulate it effectively.

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
(CS602)
Lecture 20
Perspective Projection
Now that you have a structure that can store a three dimensional point (Point3D),
how do you calculate the corresponding screen pixel? First, lets look a

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 29
Mathematics of Lighting and Shading
Part III
Traditional 3D Hardware-Accelerated Lighting Models
We will now take a look at the traditional method of calculating lighting in
hardwarea

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
(CS602)
Lecture 22
Triangle Rasterization
22.1 Introduction
High performance triangle rasterization is a very important topic in
Computer Graphics in todays world.
Triangles are the foundation of

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 28
Review III
28.1 Perspective Projection
As opposed to parallel projection, perspective projection gives a more realistic
view of the objects in the scene. The objects away from the POV

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
(CS602)
Lecture 12
2D Transformations II
Before starting our next lecture just recall equations of three basic
transformations i.e. translation, rotation and scaling:
Translation: P= P + T
Rotati

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
(CS602)
Lecture 15
Clipping-II
Introduction
15.1 Polygon Clipping
A polygon is usually defined by a sequence of vertices and edges. If the polygons are
un-filled, line-clipping techniques are suf

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 26
Mathematics of Lighting and Shading
Part II
Light Types and Shading Models
26.1 Light Types
Now that we have a way to find the light hitting a surface, we're going to need
some lights!

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
(CS602)
Lecture 11
2D Transformations I
In the previous lectures so far we have discussed output primitive as well as
filling primitives. With the help of them we can draw an attractive 2D drawin

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
(CS602)
Lecture 19
Projections
For centuries, artists, engineers, designers, drafters, and architects have been
facing difficulties and constraints imposed by the problem of representing a
three-

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
(CS602)
Lecture 21
Triangles and Planes
21.1
Triangles
Triangles are to 3D graphics what pixels are to 2D graphics. Every PC hardware
accelerator under the sun uses triangles as the fundamental d

Virtual University
Computer Graphics
Introduction to OpenGL
As a software interface for graphics hardware, OpenGL renders multidimensional
objects into a frame buffer. OpenGL is industry-standard graphics software with
which programmers can create high-qu

Virtual University
Computer Graphics
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 43
Real-World and OpenGL Lighting
When we look at a physical surface, our eye's perception of the color depends on
the distribution of photon energies that arrive and trigger o

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
(CS602)
Lecture 14
Clipping-I
14.1 Concept
It is desirable to restrict the effect of graphics primitives to a sub-region of the canvas, to
protect other portions of the canvas. All primitives are

Virtual University
Computer Graphics
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 44
Evaluators, curves and Surfaces
44.1
Evaluators
A Bzier curve is a vector-valued function of one variable
C(u) = [X(u) Y(u) Z(u)]
where u varies in some domain (say [0,1]).

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 25
Mathematics of Lighting and Shading
Part I
25.1 LIGHTS AND MATERIALS
In order to understand how an object's color is determined, we'll need to
understand the parts that come into play

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
(CS602)
Lecture 18
3D Transformations II
b) Rotation
Rotation is the process of moving a point in space in a non-linear manner.
More particularly, it involves moving the point from one position o

Virtual University
Computer Graphics
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 45
Animations
The passage of time has fascinated artists, scientists and theologians for thousands of
years. Naturally they have attributed to it different interpretations, dif

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 24
Lighting II
24.1 Clamping Color Values
Now it's perfectly fine to end up with an oversaturated color and pass this result
along to the graphics engine. What happens in the pipeline is

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 30
Mathematics of Lighting and Shading
Part IV
30.1
The Lighting Equation
So now that we've computed the various light contributions to our final color
value, we can add them up to get th

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 38
Bezier Curves
The Bezier curve is an important part of almost every computer-graphics illustration
program and computer-aided design system in use today. It is used in many ways, from

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 36
Space Curves
A space curve is not confined to a plane. It is free to twist through space. To
define a space curve we must use parametric functions that are cubic
polynomials. For x (u)

Q: If an object is scaled & rotated about its centroid coordinates (xc,yc) & then translated ,What will be
the values for the element of the composite transformation matrix? 5marks
Q : 3-d diagram given tha , nd question tha what information do u get from

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MID TERM EXAMINATION II
SEMESTER Spring 2005
CS602-COMPUTER GRAPHICS
Total Marks: 35
Duration:60mins
StudentID/LoginID
Name
PVC Name/Code
Date
Maximum Time Allowed: (1 Hour)
Please read the following instructions carefull

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WWW.VUTUBE.EDU.PK
MID TERM EXAMINATION II
SEMESTER Spring 2005
CS602-COMPUTER GRAPHICS
Total Marks: 35
Duration:60mins
StudentID/LoginID
Name
PVC Name/Code
Date
Maximum Time Allowed: (1 Hour)
Please read the following instructions carefull

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CS602 Computer Graphics
Mid Term Examination February 2005
Time Allowed: 90 Minutes
Instructions
Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any
question:
1. This examination is closed book, closed

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 35
Curves
We all know what a curve is. In this lecture we will explore the mathematical
definition of a curve in a form that is very useful to geometric modeling and other
computer graphi

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 31
Mathematics of Lighting and Shading
Part V
Physically Based Illumination
In order to get a more realistic representation of lighting, we need to move away from the
simplistic models th

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
(CS602)
Lecture 16
3D Concepts
Welcome! You are about to embark on a journey into the wondrous world of threedimensional computer graphics. Before we take the plunge into esoteric 3D jargon and
m

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Introduction to Computer Graphics
Lecture 37
The Tangent Vector
Another way to define a space curve does not use intermediate points. It uses
the tangents at each end of the curve, instead. Every point on a curve has a
straight l

Computer Graphics (CS602)
Computer Graphics
Lecture 27
Review II
27.1 CLIPPING - Concept
It is desirable to restrict the effect of graphics primitives to a sub-region of the
canvas, to protect other portions of the canvas. All primitives are clipped to th