Phase and Group velocity
Lecture #11 &
Phase velocity
The phase velocity is a speed at which a point of fixed phase propagates, which is not
always the speed at which EM information travels.
Its a sp
Reflection and refraction of
wave by the ionosphere
Lecture # 29 & 30
The mechanism of reflection and refraction of radio waves by the
ionosphere
is very much a function of frequency.
The amount of re
PROPAGATION CONSTANT
LECTURE # 07
Phase constant
The rate at which phase changes with respect to distance for any instant of time
is called phase constant.
Unit is rad/ m
Also called wave number.
Let
Lecture#25
Atmosphericregion
Engr.SaimaHafeez
Earth's atmosphere varies in density and
composition as the altitude increases above the
surface.
The atmosphere is divided into five layers. It is
thicke
Time harmonic wave equation
Lecture #09
The wave equation for conducting medium is
Now eq: for H is
Assume direction of propagation is z and E is x polarized field
Put in equation (2)
This is second
Poyntings Theorem
Lecture # 14
Poyntings Theorem
In order to find the power in a uniform plane wave, it is necessary to develop a
power theorem for the electromagnetic field known as the poynyings th
PLANE EARTH REFLECTION
LECTURE # 26
For elevated transmitting and receiving antennas within line of sight of each other,
the direct and ground reflected wave combine to produce the resultant signal.
F
AttenuationFactorforIonospheric
Propagation
Lecture#33
COLLISION FREQUENY
The collision frequency defines the rate with which electrons
collide with neutral particles in the earths atmosphere or
ionos
MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
FRM-001/00/QSP-004
Dec. 01, 2001
Tentative Teaching Plan
DEPARTMENT OF TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Name of Teacher: Engr. Saima Siddiqui
Subject:Electro