1. Charles I - Son of James I. Had a rough relationship with Parliament. He
wanted money from them but they didnt grant enough. Raised money
instead through ship money. He dissolved Parliament several times and
eventually they overthrew him and executed h
1. New Papists - Critics of Calvinism compared the religious structure to the
Catholic papacy. Calvinists were similar in their religious hierarchy. Some
people thought Calvin did not split enough from the church.
2. Presbyterian - A form of society in wh
1. James II (r. 1685-88) - Brother of Charles II. Staunchly Catholic. Alienated
Parliament swiftly. Attempted to bring back Catholicism as the dominant
religion much to the hatred of Parliament and much of England. People
feared he was becoming Louis XIV
1. Louis XIII (r.1610-43) - Son of Henry VI. Inherited the throne when 9 years
old. His mother, Marie de Medicis basically ruled for him. She wanted
stability, so she allied with Spain and later Louis married the Spanish
Infanta. Appointed Cardinal Richel
1. Oliver Cromwell - The leader of the Roundheads. Puritan. Great military
leader; bad political leader. Under him, England evolved into a dictatorship.
Parliament tried to break up his army of 50,000, so in response he broke
them up. Became Lord Protecto
1. Anglican Church - The Church of England. Basically the Catholic Church
but with a few minor differences. It kept the same dogma, but the leader of
the church was Elizabeth I instead of the Pope.
2. Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots - A French, Catholic Guise
1. Guise/Bourbon/MC families - Very powerful families in France all trying to
gain favor with the boy monarch in order to eventually control the throne.
The Guise already had considerable power within the military and the
clergy. However, it was the Bourb
1. Population Boom - Spain experienced a huge increase in population during
the late 16th century. This gave Spain power in numbers but it also produced
2. "haves/have nots" - the haves are the people who are very wealthy (top of
Steven Bramwell 3rd Period
1. Jansenists - The Catholic opposite of the Jesuits. They believed mankind
couldnt be saved without divine intervention. They served as a bridge
between Catholicism and Protestantism. Louis hated them and banned
them. By doing
1. Absolutism - Complete and total power. In this case it was a constant battle
in England and France during the 17th century. The monarchs of both
countries wanted it but the noble/parliament kept interrupting it.
2. Parliamentary Monarchy - This was the