1. Sanitation/Cholera Great belief that revolutions would cease if sanitation
improved, solutions of cleaning up cities began. With major cholera outbreaks in
the 1830s and 1840s, health and safety was a major issue in urban centers.
2. Water/Sewer System
1. Imperialism An important factor in the race for European power. Previously it
had only been GB and France with successful colonies, but soon many other
countries became involved, not always economically (a lot of these colonies were
unprofitable) but a
1. Max Planck Scientist. Pioneered the articulation of the quantum theory of
energy. This meant that energy was in packets not a stream.
2. Albert Einstein Genius famous for his relativity research in which he
discovered that time and space exist not sepa
1. Artillery A new advancement in technology that was used by both sides to blow
the crap out of the other side. It was used almost nonstop, and it destroyed not only
the military but also the civilians as the cities became a target of the artillery.
1. Jingoism Means superpatriotism. This was brought about in GB after Russian
defeat of the Ottoman Empire and the possibility of Russia becoming a
2. Congress of Berlin of 1878 After Russia gained significant territory that
1. Georges Sorel Reflections on Violence, he advocated syndicalism
(seizure of means of production by workers in unions) and strikes.
2. SPD German Socialist Democratic Party; this group kept Marxism
socialism alive more than any group during the late 19t
1. Entente Cordiale Friendly agreement between GB and France. It was not an
Alliance, just an official ending to hard feelings. It led to an alliance later, and
GBs emergence from splendid isolation.
2. Sir Edward Grey British foreign secretary. He had th
Duma Elected representative body with an upper/lower house, the first
elections brought in a radical majority.
P.A. Stolypin New finance minister after Witte, he persuaded the Tsar to
dissolve the Duma and attempted to stop all causes for revolt. He
1. Millcent Fawcett/Emmeline Pankhurst Fawcett was the leader of the
National Union of Womens Suffrage societies and used liberal tactics as
she believed women would receive suffrage if proved responsible.
Pankhurst led radical feminists (Social and Polit
1. Charles Darwin Wrote two books: The Origin of Species and The Descent of
Man. He introduced the explanation to evolution (not a new concept) through
natural selection or survival of the fittest. Huge upheaval. He did not promote
Atheism and actually di