Napoleons Empire (1804-1814)
Napoleons advance unleashed a powerful force of nationalism.
He could conscript citizen soldiers in huge numbers because of
their loyalty to the nation and Napoleon.
Conquering an Empire
Napoleon sent an army to restore Haiti
Bismarck laid the diplomatic groundwork for this war with typical
thoroughness. Russia, already Prussia's friend and still mad at Austria, was
effectively neutral. Bismarck kept France out of the war by making vague
promises of Rhineland
Mazzini (Italian independence, republicanism)
Benjamin Constant (liberal theorist, linked modern liberty to economic freedom and a
Bourbon Restoration (Restoration of the King, Louis XVIII to the throne of France)
Germany had been fragmented into more than 300 separate states ever
since the Investiture Struggle during the Middle Ages which had wrecked the
power of the German emperors. In the following centuries it suffered from foreign
1790 Civil Constitution of the Clergy (7/14) - Roman Catholic Church
in France becomes a branch of the secular state under the NCA
amount of bishops reduced, diocese borders adjusted to fit the new
departments, priests and bishops now elected and paid by
The Conservative Order and Challenges of Reform
19th Century isms: These five secular ideologies began taking root in the minds of the
learned and popular imaginations in opposition to the political and social status quo.
Nationalism: The concept that a n
1793 every major European power now hostile to the revolution (fear of ideas
spreading)vocal opposition include Edmund Burke, William Pitt the younger
End of enlightened absolutism in Europe (Leopold II of Austria, Frederick William
II of Prussia, Catheri
Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
The Directory didnt want this because they had hopes of restoring
the Bourbon monarchy.
Their plan for a restoration gained support from the devout
Catholics and from citizens who hated the excesses of the revolution.
There were three major obstacles that lay in the way of Italian unification;
Austrian control of Lombardy and Venice in the north, the principality of the pope
(Papal States that controlled the center of the Italian Peninsula), and va