Geophysical data processing
Dynamic range: the ratio of the largest measurable amplitude Amax
to the smallest measurable amplitude Amin in a sampled function
= the ratio of two power values P1 and P2 is given by 10
Nyquist frequency ( fN):
Newtons second law of motion: The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly
proportional to the resultant or net external force acting on the body and takes place in the
direction in which the force acts.
The mathematical expression is,
An air-track glider is attached to a spring. The glider is pulled to the right and released from rest
at t=0.00s. It then oscillates with a period of 7.10s and a maximum speed of 16.1cm/s. What is
the amplitude of the oscillation?
of inelastic collisions, only law of conservation of momentum holds good. That is the total initial
momentum of the system is equal to the total final momentum of the system. That is,
m1 m2 v f
m1v1 m2 v2
is the mass of the first sphere
The distance between shore and center of boat is
and the length of the boat is L.
The initial center of mass of the system is,
mB d mJ d mR d
mB mJ mR
is the mass of the boat,
is the mass of the Juliet, and
is the mass of
A block attached to a spring with an unknown spring constant oscillates with a period of 4.28s.
What is the period if the mass is doubled?
What is the period if the mass is halved?
What is the period if the amplitude is
A 10-cm-diameter cylinder of neon gas is 30cmlong and at 22C. The pressure gauge
reads 170psi What is the mass density of the gas?
The mass density of the helium is,
Actual pressure inside the gas is,
p p0 pgauge
p pguage p0
In this case, slipping means that the force exerted on the top block is must be equal to the
frictional force between the two blocks. If it exceeds the frictional force, then the small block
starts moving from its position and slips.
f max s N
Since the two blocks are at rest initially, the total initial momentum of the system of two blocks
is zero. That is,
The total final momentum of the system of the two blocks is,
Pf Mv 3Mv1
From the law of conservation of momentum, the total initial m
The y-coordinate of the centre of mass before the collision is,
m y m2 y2
y0,CM 1 1
88.7 g 3.70 102 m 5.39 102m m2 0
88.7 g 145 g
The x-coordinate of the centre of mass before the collision is,
m x m2 x2
x0,CM 1 1
88.7 g x1 m2
Find the wavelength of the photon emitted during a 5->1 transition in a hydrogen atom.
Bohrs equation for energy level transitions in hydrogen is,
R 2 2
n f ni
Here, is the wavelength of the photon emitted,
is Rydbergs constant, nf is the qu
Calculate the longest-wavelength photon that can cause an electron in silicon (Eg =
1.57eV ) to jump from the valence band to the conduction band.
The released energy when the electron jump from valence band to conduction band is,
is the Plan
1. Big-Bang Theory was propounded by
A) Allan and Laplace
B) Georges Lemaitre
D) Kant and Laplace
a. The theory states that about 13.7 billion years ago all the matter in the Universewas
concentrated into a single incredibly tiny point
In terms of the ground-state energy E1,1,1, what is the energy of the highest level occupied by an
electron when 10 electrons are placed into a cubical box?
Express your answer in terms of E.
In cubic box, the energy level is,
Enx ,n y ,nz nx2 ny2 n
A spaceship leaves Earth traveling at 0.70 c. A second spaceship leaves the first at a speed of0.81
c with respect to the first.
A) Calculate the speed of the second ship with respect to Earth if it is fired in the same direction
the first spaceship is al
A string is wrapped around a disk of mass m = 5 kg. Starting from rest, you pull the string with a
constant force F = 10 N along a nearly frictionless surface. At the instant when the center of the
disk has moved a distance x = 0.20 m, your hand has moved
A converging lens with a focal length of 12 cm forms a virtual image 8 mm tall, 17 cm to
the right of the lens.
a) Determine the position of the object?
b) Determine the size of the object?
c)Is the image inverted or erect?
d) Are the object and the image
The figure below gives the position of a 25 g block oscillating in SHM on the end of a
spring. On the horizontal axis, t1 = 18 ms.
(a) What is
the maximum kinetic energy of the block? (Hint: Measuring a slope will probably not be
very accurate. Can you th
The following nuclei are observed to decayby emitting a - particle
a. 3516 S
Write out the deacy process for each of these nuclei. Express your answer as a nuclear
equation. Also determine the energy released in each reaction. Be sure to take i
The longest wavelength associated with vibrational transitions of the diatomic CO
molecule is 1920 nm. What is the value of the ground state energy for this molecule?
What is the energy of the n=3 state for this molecule?
The vibrational energy of the mol
A flashlight on the bottom of a 4.00 m deep swimming pool sends a ray upward and at an
angle so that the ray strikes the surface of the water 1.50m from the point directly above
the flashlight. What angle (in air) does the emerging ray make with the water
In this case, we need to consider three things (one force and two weights). They are:
Weight of the empty bucket,
Weight that filled water after 2.62 s,
The applied force due change in its potential energy, since it is falling from certain height
A small glider is placed against a compressed spring at the bottom of an air track that
slopes upward at an angle of 48.0 degrees above the horizontal. The glider has mass
. The spring has 640 N/m and negligible mass. When the spring is released
In a double-slit experiment, the distance from one slit to the m = 4 bright fringe is
What is the distance from this bright fringe to the other, more distant slit (in )?
The condition for bright fringe in Youngs double slit e
A 8.00 nF capacitor is charged up to 14.0 V, then disconnected from the power supply
and connected in series through a coil. The period of oscillation of the circuit is then
measured to be
8.10 105 s
Calculate the inductance of the coil.Calculat
A synchronous satellite, which always remains above the same point on a
planets equator, is put in orbit around Jupiter to study that planets famous
red spot. Jupiter rotates once every 9.84 h. Find the altitude of the satellite
above the surfac
An ideal spring hangs from the ceiling. A 1.25-kg mass is hung from the spring. After all
vibrations have died away, the spring is found to have stretched 0.0425 m from its
original length. The mass is then pushed up 0.0685 m from its equilibriu
A metallic laboratory spring is typically 5.00 cm long and 0.150 cm in diameter and has
If you connect such a spring in an electric circuit, how much self-inductance must you
include for it if you model it as an ideal solenoid?