ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW
Orthographic View depends on relative position of the object
to the line of sight.
Two dimensions of an
object is shown.
More than one View is nee-
to represent the object.
U
Mum mowing
Three dimensions of an object is show
Partial List of Drawing Standards
Code number Contents
J IS 2 8311 Sizes and Fonnat of Drawings
JIS Z 8312 Line Conventions
JIS Z 8313 Lettering
JIS Z 8314 Soaies
JIS Z 8315 Projection methods
JIS Z 8318 Presentation of Views and Sections
JIS Z 8317 Dimen
ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW
NOTES
- Orthographic projection technique can produce either
1. Muiview drawing
that each View show an object in two dimensions.
2. Axcncmetrfc drawing
that show all three dimensions of an object in one View.
I Beth drawing types are use
Disadvantage of
Perspective Projection
- Perspective projection is not
used by engineer for manu-
facturing cf parts, because
1) It is difcult to create.
2) It does not reveal exact
shape and size. . (4.
Width is distorted
Standards are set of rules that govern how technical
drawings are represented.
I Drawing standards are used so that drawings convey
the same meaning to everyone who reads them.
Drawing Sheet
I Trimmed paper of
a size AU ~ A4.
I Standard sheet size
(JIS)
A4 21G x 297
A3 297 x 420
A2 420 x 594
A1 594 x 841
A0 841 x 1189
(Dimensions in miiiimeters)
I Orientation of drawing sheet
1. Type x (A0~A4) 2. Type Y (A4 only)
Drawing
BPFC'EF space Titie biock
iines
Sheetsize C(min) d(min)
A4 10 25
A3 10 25
A2 10 25
A1 20 25
AU 20 25
Axonometric (Isometric) Drawing
Advantage EasyF to understand
Disadvantage Shape and angle distortion
Example Distortions of shape and size in isometric drawing
Circular hole
becomes ellipse.
Multiview Drawing
Advantage It represents accurate shape and size.
Disadvantage Require practice in writing and reading.
Example Multiviews drawing (Z-View drawing)
W
13
:
LJ L_J
POWER CYCLES WITH AMMONIA-WATER
MIXTURES AS WORKING FLUID
Analysis of Different Applications and the Influence of
Thermophysical Properties
Eva Thorin
Doctoral Thesis
2000
Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology
Energy Processes
Royal Institute
BITS, PILANI DUBAI
DUBAI INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC CITY, DUBAI
I" Year I Semester: 2011 - 2012
Course: ME C312 Design of Machine Elements
Comgrehensive Examination
MaxMarks: 40 Date: 07-01-2012
Weightage: 80 lo Mechanical Time: 3 hours
Note: Notes: (i) Ans
BENDING FREQUENCIES OF BEAMS, RODS, AND PIPES
Revision S
By Tom Irvine
Email: tom@vibrationdata.com
November 20, 2012
_
Introduction
The fundamental frequencies for typical beam configurations are given in Table 1.
Higher frequencies are given for selecte
Write the deflection at the free end of a cantilever beam of constant El and span L
carrying u.d.l of meeter length.
m3
Maximum deﬂection at the ﬁ'ee end ofa cantilever due to u.d.l of me :E
_ What is meant by determinate beams?
The beams whose external r
A cantilever of span lcarries a concentrated load W at the centre of the beam and
propped at the free end. What is the prop reaction?
The downward deﬂection ofB due to the u.d.l (in the absence ofthe prop)
_ 51m.“
Y _
B 48E!
The upward deﬂection ofB due
Free Body Diagram Method (simpliﬁed)
The connecting rod of this slider-crank mechanism is a
two-force member. This observation simpliﬁes the solution
to the problem. The reaction forces at A and B must be in
equal but in opposite directions. These react
What is the slope at the support for a simply supported beam of constant El and span L
carrying central concentrated load?
an?
155:,
Slope at the support due to central concentrated load, w =
Write the support moment for a ﬁxed beam of constant El and s
What are the values of slope and deﬂection for a simply supported beam of length l
subjected to moment at both the ends.
ML
Slope at AB :—
3E1
m?
33:
Defection at C 2
Centroids
Consider a region in the plane of area A. We can think of the region as a thin plate with uniform thickness
and density. The centroid of the region has coordinates (x, y). It can be found using
x=
1
A
xe dA
and y =
A
1
A
ye dA
A
where (xe , ye )