AR 100 AA
9/6 Reading: Images 1-8, 561-573
Chapter 1: Principles of Archaeology
- Excavation is at the heart of the fascination of archaeology
- Tells us about our human past
- Prehistory: In general, the human past; specifically, the time before
THE MAYA: REDISCOVERY, DECIPHERMENT, AND RELIGION Dec. 6, 2011
Mesoamerica: The Maya Region
Lowlands vs. Highlands
Aztec, Maya, Inca: New world civilizations, different geographically, different histories, different governmental sys
What is Archaeology? Origins of the field.
I. Archaeology, History and Chronology
II. Anthropology and Culture
III. Evolutionary Theory
Archaeology, History and Chronology
ARCHAEOLOGY: the field of science that studies the past through its material re
Biological and Cultural Evolution
Early Thought on Culture History and the Natural World (16th and 17th centuries)
Mind of God and Gods Will the driving force behind nature.
Fixity of Earth and Life
Inquisition for heretics
Evolutionary Theory : Charles Darwin (18091882)
Naturalist on board the H.M.S. Beagle on a five year expedition to South America and the
Pacific (Dec. 27, 1831 to Oct. 2, 1836)
Probably knew of Lamarck and had a copy of Lyells Principles of Geology with
Anthropology and Culture
The comprehensive science of humankind.
The study of human beings as biological organisms and as culture bearing creatures.
In the U.S., the field consists of four subdisciplines: cultural anth., physical anth.,
The Archaeological Record
the more or less continuous distribution of artifacts over the earths surface, in
highly variable densities
The archaeological record is comprised of four categories:
Human Origins I The Basal and Lower Paleolithic
The Order Primates
Linnaeus 10th edition of Systema Naturae placed humans in this order
1816 the genus Pan was added for chimps
1847 the genus Gorilla was added
The Great Apes
Not much was known of the A
The Royal Cemetery of Ur
Greek term meaning land between rivers
Scholars have often referred to it as the Heartland of Cities or the Cradle of
Mentioned in the Bible as the traditional home of Abraham (Gen.
The Destruction of Pompeii
August 24, 79 AD
The Roman Imperial city of Pompeii, and its sister city Herculaneum, were
annihilated by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. Tens of thousands of people died in
the Bay of Naples and Pompeii was buried Pompeii under
Great Zimbabwe or house of stone is the name for the largest occurrence of
hundreds of stone ruins spread over a 200 square mile area in modern Zimbabwe
They were once probably the administrative center o
Neolithic "Revolution" in the Near East
The Natufians settle down. The first domestication of plants and animals. Neolithic people at Jericho
and Abu Hureyra. The Neolithic town of atalhyk.
Reading: Images: 199235; Discovery!: 180183. (atalhyk project: ww
9/11 Reading: Images 8-33, 145-146
I. The Discovery of Archaeological Sites
a. Artifact any object or item created or modified by human action
b. Site the accumulation of artifacts and/or eco-facts, representing a place where people lived or
carried out c
Reading: Images: 35103 [5th Edition: 35103]; Discovery!: 2131.
I. The first humans
a. The Dawn of Humanity
a.i. Primate: the order of animals that includes lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, apes,
a.ii. Hominoidea: The taxonomic group (family) that inc
AR Exam 2 Review
Agriculture, plants and animals.
Know the different sites, one in Israel.
Two Terms: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Archaic new world, a lot of these terms mean the same thing.
Agriculture- different origins of plants and animals.
Neolithic Revolution in the Near East
Shift to agricultural way of life, to growing your own food rather than just hunting and gathering, and this spreads virtually everywhere
throughout the world. And we live in this kind of lifestyle in modern times (ag
THE FIRST CITIES: SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION (ca. 35002000 BC)
Comes after Neolithic Cultures in the near east.
Cultures evolve between Tigris and Euphrates rivers, also known as Mesopotamia, which literally means between the rivers
Mesopotamia: Environment an
STONEHENGE-October 13, 2011
Agriculture emerged out of southwest Asia in 7000 BC, spreads to Balkans and then to Europe. And complex societies start to emerge.
Stonehenge is located in Southern England, Neolithic life reaches England around 4000-3000 BC
PYRAMID POWER: EGYPT OF THE PHARAOHS
land dominated by its natural environment
narrow strip of nil river that goes from 4187 miles long and runs north and drains into the Mediterranean sea. Rich and
organic land created by floods
2nd old state-society