Argument - a set of sentences consisting of an assertion to be
supported (conclusion) and the verbal evidence for that assertion
Logic field of study concerned with the relationship betwee
Introduction to Fallacies
Fallacies (or fallacious arguments) are mistakes in reasoning;
although the premises might appear to provide support for the
conclusion, they do not. To commit a fallacy is to offer or accept
non-evidence as evidence.
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873): English philosopher (ethics, logician),
Method of Agreement
a. Look at the antecedent circumstances and see if there is
some circumstance common to each of the cases of the
event or condition in
9.VII: Reducing terms in syllogisms
Syllogisms cannot contain more than 3 terms
To eliminate complementary terms in the predicate position by
o Changing the affirmative to the negative and vice versa
If the extra term is not in the pr
09/10/13 and 09/12/13
Ambiguity - capacity of being understood in two or more ways
When analyzing arguments, make sure an expressing is being used
in the same sense throughout the argument.
Fallacy of Equivocation using a multiple meanings of an
09/17/13 Introduction to Deductive Arguments
We can classify arguments into 3 types:
1. If all the premises were true. They would guarantee the truth
of the conclusion (Valid) DEDUCTIVE
2. If all premises were true, they would make probable the truth
Introduction to Statistical Syllogisms
Inductive arguments can have a correct form, all true premises and
still a false conclusion. But, the premises should at least make it
probable that the conclusion is true.
Syllogism an argument with two premises and
An analogy is when we point out an observed similarity between two
things or types of things.
An argument from analogy is when we conclude that items similar
in observed ways are also similar is some further, yet unobserved
To judge the streng
Quiz #4 Study Guide
What is the difference between an inductive and a deductive argument?
no notion of validity
contains a notion of validity: if the
good inductive arguments can have true premises are true, the conclusion
Quiz 1 Study Guide
1. What is a statement?
An assertion that something is or is not the case. true or false
2. What is a premise?
A statement given in support of another statement.
3. What is a conclusion?
A statement supported by premises
4. What is an a
Quiz #3 Study Guide
What are the parts of a categorical statement?
All S are P. (A form) Universal affirmative
No S are P. (E form) Universal negative
Some S are P. (I form) particular affirmative
Some S are not P. (O form) particular negative
What is a c
Quiz #2 Study Guide
What is testimony?
S testifies that P S states that P
What is credibility?
Ss testimony is credible for a given domain D if and only if: S is competent regarding D; S
is trustworthy regarding D.
How do we know if someone is an expert?